When Gluckel was barely twelve, her father betrothed her to the stabilizing force of absolutism in the Chayim Hameln, and they married when she was fourteen.
The work required constant travel to larger cities, markets, and fairs in bad weather.
Chayim had a discussion with his wife about his business dealings.
A friend asked if he had any last wishes.
"None," he said.
My wife knows everything.
He had been his friend, full business partner, and wife for thirty years.
They had thirteen children, twelve of which survived their father.
Chayim had predicted that Gluckel would launch the boys in careers and provide dowries for the girls.
Her family, the Jewish community of Hameln, and the Jewish communities into which her children married were all part of her world.
Her social and business activities took her across Europe, from Amsterdam to Berlin, from Danzig to Vienna.
She was proud that Prince Frederick danced at her daughter's wedding.
The prosperity of Chayim's businesses allowed the couple to keep up to six servants.
The power was held by the provincial estates.
Each of the seven provinces had the power to veto any proposed legislation and foreign affairs and war were handled by a federal assembly.
The executive officer was in charge of military defense.
In practice, the prince of Orange is usually the prince of the Netherlands, a position often held by the princes of Orange.
The Dutch political success was dependent on their commercial prosperity.
The moral and ethical bases of that commercial wealth were thrift, frugality, and religious toleration.
In early modern Europe, Jews were accepted in Dutch business and culture.
In the Dutch Republic, toleration paid and attracted a lot of foreign capital.
herring fishing profits were put into shipbuilding by the Dutch to dominate the shipping business.
Dutch wealth was dependent on the Dutch merchant marine, which was manned by forty-eight thousand sailors.
The goods were taken to the port of Amsterdam.
As Spain's power began to weaken in the early 17th century, the Dutch, English, and French seized their opportunity to claim their own territories in the New World.
In the 17th century there were disagreements over access to trade with the Americas, but by the early 18th century England had won concessions that allowed it to dominate trade across the Atlantic.
The absence or presence of European women was one of the factors that shaped life in the colonies.
The mixing of European, indigenous, and African peoples resulted in a complex ethnic and cultural identity.
In the 16th century, the Spanish and Portuguese dominated the Americas.
England, France, and the Netherlands profited from Spain's weakness in the early 17th century.
Unlike Spain, where the royal government financed exploration and directly ruled the colonies, England, France, and the Netherlands left colonization largely to chartered companies endowed with mo nopolies over settlement and trade in a given area.
Virginia, the first successful English colony, produced tobacco for a growing European market.
In exchange for several years of work and the promise of greater opportunity, indentured servants were granted free passage to the colony.
English people from the Caribbean island of Barbados settled in Carolina in the 1670s.
A harsh racial divide was imposed during the late 17th century when enslaved Africans replaced indentured servants as laborers on rice plantations.
The first settlers on the coast of New England had more religious reasons for seeking a new life in the colonies.
Many of the colonists were radical Protestants.
Massachusetts Bay Colony grew into a pros perous settlement after it was owed by the small outpost of Plymouth Colony.
The dispersion of settlers into the new communities of Providence, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Haven was caused by religious disputes in Massachusetts.
Slavery was a small part of life in New England because of the lack of plantation agriculture.
The English settlements hugged the Atlantic coastline.
Conflict over land and resources continued.
Conflicts of authority within the colonies were caused by the haphazard nature of English colonization.
Efforts were made to acquire the territory between New England in the north and Virginia in the south as the English crown became more interested in colonial expansion.
The goal was to unify English holdings and reduce French and Dutch competition on the Atlantic seaboard.
The Catholic settlement of Maryland, captured from the Dutch in 1664, was one of the results of these efforts.
The French moved farther south after establishing colonies in Canada.
The first permanent French settlement at Quebec was founded in 1608 by Samuel de Champlain.
The economic minister of Louis XIV, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, established direct royal control over New France.