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There are visual representations of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis on this site.
When it comes to what we eat, most people are familiar with carbohydrates, a type of macromolecule.
Some people follow a "low-carb" diet to lose weight.
Athletes often use "carb-load" to make sure they have enough energy to compete at a high level.
Carbohydrates are part of our diet.
In humans, animals, and plants, sugars have other important functions.
In other words, the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1.
The components of water and carbon are explained in this formula.
There are three types of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
The number of carbons in monosaccharides can range from three to seven.
The suffix -ose is what most monosaccharide names end with.
If the sugar has an aldehyde group, it is an aldose, and if it has a ketone group, it is a ketose.
Depending on the number of carbons in the sugar, they can be trioses, pentoses, and/or hexoses.
Scientists classify monosaccharides by the position of their carbonyl group and the number of carbons in the backbone.
Aldoses have a carbonyl group at the end of the carbon chain, while ketoses have a carbonyl group in the middle of the carbon chain.
There are three-, five-, and six- carbon backbones in the trioses, pentoses, and hexoses.
The chemical formula is C6H12O6.
It is important for humans to have a source of energy.
During cellular respiration, energy is released and that helps make adenosine triphosphate.
Plants use carbon dioxide and water to synthesise and provide energy for the plant.
Humans and other animals that feed on plants store excess sugar in their cells.
Other common monosaccharides include Galactose, which is part of milk sugar, and fructose, which is found in fruit.
Because of the different arrangement of functional groups around the asymmetric carbon, fructose, galactose, andglucose have different chemical formulas.
The monosaccharides have more than one asymmetric carbon.
There are three types of sugars:glucose, galactose and fructose.
They are structural isomers, meaning they have the same chemical formula but different atom arrangements.
They have the same chemical formula, but have slightly different structures.
There are three types of sugars:glucose, galactose and fructose.
Monosaccharides can be either a linear chain or a ring-shaped molecule.
They are usually in ring forms.
There are two different hydroxyl group arrangements around the anomeric carbon in a ring form.
If the hydroxyl group is below carbon number 1 in the sugar, it is in the alpha position and above the plane.
There are five and six carbon monosaccharides in equilibrium.
The side chain closes on the locks when the ring forms.
Fructose and ribose form five-membered rings as opposed to the sixmembered ring of glucose.
One monosaccharide's hydroxyl group combines with another monosaccharide's hydrogen, releasing a water molecule and forming a covalent bond.
There are two types of bonds: alpha or beta.
When the OH group on the carbon-1 is below the ring plane, an alpha bond is formed and when the OH group on the carbon-1 is above the ring plane, a beta bond is formed.
Sucrose forms when a dehydration reaction between a glucose and a fructose monomer is formed.
A water molecule is lost.
The terminal carbon closest to the carbonyl group is the number of the carbon atoms in a monosaccharide.
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are common disaccharides.
Lactose is a disaccharide composed of two sugars.
It's in milk.
A dehydration reaction between two sugars leads to the formation of maltose.
The most common disaccharide is table sugar.
Lactose, maltose, and sucrose are some of the common disaccharides.
The chain may be branched or unbranched.
Depending on the number of joined monomers, the weight may be 100,000 daltons.
There are many examples of polysaccharides.
Plants have sugars in their form.
The sugars in plants are comprised of an amylose and amylopectic mixture.
Plants store excessglucose, beyond their immediate energy needs, in different plant parts, including roots and seeds.
The food in the seeds can be used as a food source for humans and animals.
Humans consume a lot of starch.
An amylase present in saliva can break down the starch into smaller molecules, such as maltose andglucose.
The cells can digest the substance.
There are monomers that are joined by bonds.
The carbon number of the two residues that joined to form the bond is referred to as the numbers 1-4 and 1-6.
As shown in Figure 3.9, amylopectin is a branched polysaccharide, whereas unbranched glucose monomer chains form the starch.
Amylose and amylopectin are two different types of starches.
The amylose is composed of unbranched glucose monomer chains.
The amylopectin is composed of unbranched glucose monomer chains.
The way the chains are joined has a helical structure.
It is similar to amylopectin in structure but more branched.
A Glycogen is a highly branched molecule that is stored in the body.
Scientists call this process glycogenolysis when blood sugar levels go down.
There is a plant's cell wall.
The structural support is provided by this.
Wood and paper are made from plants.
The link between the sugars is shown in Figure 3.10).
The sugars are linked in unbranched chains.
The way the glucose subunits are joined results in a linear, fibrous structure.
In Figure 3.10 you can see that every other glucose monomer is packed tightly as long chains.
It is important for plant cells to have high tensile strength.
Animals such as cows, koalas, and buffalos are able to digest plant material with the help of specialized flora in their stomachs because they are able to break down the b 1-4 linkage.
Some of the animals have protists that reside in the rumen and excrete the cellulase.
The appendix of animals containsbacteria that digest cellulose, which is an important part of the ruminants' system.
Cellulases can break down cellulose into sugars that animals use for energy.
The presence of other organisms in the body of the tress allows them to break down cellulose.
Different animals have different functions.
It is a modified sugar made from repeating N-acetyl-b-dglucosamine units.
Chitin is part of the cell walls.
In the domain Eukarya, Fungi are not animals or plants, but kingdoms of their own.
Chitin is a type of polysaccharide and is found in insects.
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