We can build a fridge and a hot one, but we have to make the food cold and then cool it down inside the cooler order.
If the environment does positive work on the working substance, it is possible to create a machine that will transfer thermal energy from a cooler reservoir to a hotter one.
We have invented a refrigerator by reversing the engine process.
A refrigerator is a type of pump.
An air conditioner is also.
It is not an isolated system that the substance can take energy from the cold storage and deliver it to the hot one.
Let's take a closer look at how a refrigerator works.
A fluid with a boiling point below 0 C is a hydrofluorocarbon.
The boiling temperature of HFCs is -29.9 C; below this temperature, most of the substance is in liquid form; above this temperature, it is a gas.
The food compartment is where the thermal energy is transferred from the substance to the appliance.
More of the substance is evaporates when it flows through the inside of the refrigerator.
A decrease in the food temperature is caused by energy transfers from the food to the substance.
As the substance leaves the inside of the refrigerator, it is warmer and more in the state it was when it entered.
The substance is now hotter than the environment outside the refrigerator.
The hot reservoir is sub to H2.
At this point, the sub stance temperature decreases, and it condenses back from a gas to a liquid.
Its internal energy is going to decrease.
More of the substance is condenses into a cool liquid and reenters the refrigerator for another trip around the cycle.
The flow diagram and bar chart shows the refrigerator.
The internal energy of the substance is the same at the end of a single cycle.
The first two terms are positive.
Air conditioners operate the same way.
The temperature must be inkelvin.
A pump can be used to warm a home.
The compressor Comp on Sub is used to make the transfer possible.
A flow Comp on Sub substance shows the process.
The substance should be output like the refrigerant.
It is possible to transfer energy from one place to another.
The temperatures must be inkelvin.
The energy is being pumped from a cooler region to a warmer one.
A pump transfers energy into a house.
The units are correct for the quantities and the transfer of the J from the substance numbers is reasonable.
Unfortunately, heating to the house.
If the pump is operating at maximum efficiency, the compressor must be winterized and cooled in the summer.
People talk about saving energy.
The problem isn't about running out of energy on Earth.
It is not possible to destroy or use up energy.
Making efficient use of low-entropy forms of en ergy is what "energy conserver" means.
Significant amounts of energy have been converted from useful forms to less useful forms with less desired efficiency in two areas.
Almost all of the US's energy use is satisfied by burning some form of gasoline.
Reducing energy deg radation improves car efficiency.
The maximum efficiency of gas oline-powered internal combustion engines depends on the temperatures of the combustion chamber and the exhaust system, but is not very high.
70% of the initial chemical energy of gasoline is converted to thermal energy.
Engine friction and energy used to pump air into and out of the engine are some of the causes of additional degradation energy.
Diesel engines are more efficient than gasoline engines because they operate at higher pressure and temperature.
The moving parts of the drivetrain lose energy.
Automatic manual transmissions and continuously variable transmissions can be used to reduce losses.
Idling at stop lights contributes to automobile efficiency and power plants.
The car's thermal energy is converted to useless thermal energy when you use your brakes.
A charged battery or a turning flywheel can be converted into electrical potential energy by a newer braking system.
The stored energy can be used again.
When a car is idling at stoplights or when it is parked with its engine running, significant energy degradation occurs.
Integrated starter/generator systems help reduce these transformations by automatically turning the engine off when the ve hicle comes to a stop and restarting it when the accelerator is pressed.
When a hybrid car stops, the only working motor is the electric one.
The air conditioner, power steering, and windshield wipers all use additional energy.
Energy used to gain speed is a final important efficiency factor.
A vehicle's driveline must provide enough energy for the wheels to turn fast enough so the road surface can cause the vehicle to accelerate.
The mass of the car is related to the acceleration.
The less mass a vehicle has, the less work needs to be done to increase the car's energy output.
Smaller cars have less mass than larger ones, and manual transmissions have less mass than automatic transmissions.
H is the number that occurs, such as braking.
What is the temperature difference efficiency equations if this is the maximum?
At a lower temperature, the maximum efficiency spark plug would ignite.
An engine that is not operating as hot as calculated is not as efficient.
The result is depressing.
A power plant is an example of a thermodynamic engine.
The TVA's Kingston Fossil Plant is a typical coal-fired power plant that burns about 14,000 tons 11 ton is 1000 kilowatts of coal per day in a boiler.
The steam from the boiler is converted to water at a temperature of 540 C.
The steam, at very high pressure, flows through a turbine, which spins generators to produce electric energy.
After leaving the generator, the steam is cooled in a condenser, which is in contact with cold river water.
The steam is converted into water at a pressure of 32-38 C. The low temperature and pressure on the output side of the turbine help move the high-pressure steam at the input to the turbine through the turbine.
The cycle begins again after the water is returned to the boiler.
The Kingston plant is capable of generating enough electricity to supply 540,000 homes.
24 * 106 J of energy is released when coal is burned.
We have a sketch of the plant.
The text above provides information about the transfer of the burning coal's energy to the plant.
We need to find the substance.
The plant is only able to operate at half the maximum efficiency allowed by the second law of thermodynamics.
The rate of thermal energy transfer by burning coal is disorganized.
Useful work is equal to 30% of the energy supplied to the engine.
The rest is useless thermal energy.
The Sys is inkelvins.
The forms have less ability to do useful work.
Sub is equal to 0.
The col ision of bil iard bal s is considered 11 in physics.
The second law of elasticity says that human life should be elastic.
The thermal energy in a system can't be converted.
Choose the best reason for why the energy wouldn't be used.
Your work leads to an increase in entropy.
The drop is the amount of fuel in the car's tank that needs to be cooled down.
Why is there other or converted from one form to another?
When a car burns fuel, its energy is used up in the spring.
Is this a contradiction of the 7?
You can give the reasons for your choice.
There are three examples of processes other than Conserve energy.
The ratio of focus is determined by the number of microstates.
The probability that a person is lost is the least difficult.
There are six lost people on the south half of the island.
Parachutists have an equal chance of landing on the south half of a smal island.
Indicate if a reverse process can happen.
Determine the ratio of the counts of the 20 atoms bulb.
The water, generator, lightbulb, and Earth are all in a macrostate with 10 atoms on the left half of a box system.
Your body is the system.
The original hot gas is cool.
Nine numbered balls are dropped into three different places.
Each box has a number labeled which first glows and then stops glowing.
The system consists of the ball, Earth, and air.
The cups have water in them.
There is sand in the top 13.
The system is the car and ice.
What object does 14?
If heating occurs, indicate it.
There are different types of energy.
All of the water has an even color after a while.
A person consumes about 60 ounces of clear water.
There is a container with water that is located in a box with two halves.
Each state is cooled by the other container holding 0.1 kilogram of water.
A system with six atoms has a previous problem.
The final temperature of the mixture should be determined after the cycle is over.
Iced tea has the same heat as wa (c) and the work that the gas does on the environment is ter.
The process is owed by the Sec each step.
The heating is contained in a barrel.
Does the first law of the cycle.
It travels 12 m down a plane to determine the thermal energy of the gas with the horizontal.
Determine the change in internal thermal at each corner of the process and the change in the block-inclined plane-Earth system during each step of the process.
A heat pump is used.
Determine the maximum efficiency from outside air at 5 C and deliver it into a house at of the thermodynamic engines described below.
The on level ground converts water to ice at 0 C.
The engine has an efficiency ature heat reservoir of 0.32.
A car has a diesel engine.
The amount of energy provided by gasoline during the trip is of energy for each kilogram of gasoline burned.
105 m2 is the efficiency of the engine.
The density of gasoline during this trip is close to 700 kilogrammes.
A nuclear power plant can produce 0.26 gallons of electric energy at a rate of 500 MW.
During the 160 km trip, you use about one-quarter gallon of gasoline to transfer the air resistance from the high to the electric generator.
The car is powered by 1200 MW of nuclear fuel.
The plant warms to 500 C and emits it at 100 C. To overcome this air the rate at which the nuclear fuel must provide energy must be determined.
The rate of thermal energy exhausted when driving at a steady speed for 160 km is half of the gasoline a typical car con working substance.
The plant and environment make up half of the other half.
An experiment that can be performed to estimate the average amount of ficiency in a human body is described.
The magnitude of the force that air exerts is at 22 m. The four parts on the car are represented by the equations, which are closest to C and D.
105 N>m2210.020 m3 - 0.010 m32 + 0 39.
Consider the effect of air resistance on fuel consumption during a 160 km 1100 mile trip in a car.
A force diagram is used when you make a photocopy.
The energy bar chart was reproduced into a new image on the new sheet.
The drum in the copy machine attracts small particles of toner.
Dark regions containing text or pictures are attracted off byubbing.
The balloon reflected light.
There are places in the text and pictures where powder is left.
The drum presses against the copy paper to transfer the desired image.
The powder sticks to the new page if the temperature is increased.
Two balloons are rubbed with wool.
If you rub a balloon with something.
Two balloons are rubbed with wool.
Experiments with rubbed objects.
The felt rubbed the balloons.
The bal is close to the balloon.
The plastic wrap rubbed the bal of the balloons with an attractive force.
The closer is rubbed with plastic wrap.
The balloon is moving.
The balloons get closer to each other.
As the balloons are held closer, the attraction strengthens.
The same material repels each other.
A balloon rubbed with a material attracts it.
The closer the objects are to each other, the stronger the effects are.
Similar effects can be seen in many other objects.
You can use plas tic rods instead of bal oons and rub them with felt, glass or silk.
More vigorous rubbing increases the magnitude of the forces that the objects exert on each other.
The effects of different materials were observed by ancient people.
The Greeks noticed that amber attracted particles after it was rubbed with wool.
The attraction was called electrical because it was called amber.
The charge on a balloon rubbed with plastic wrap or a glass rod rubbed with silk is positive and the charge on a bal oon rubbed with wool or felt is negative.
We can change the patterns that we found in the experiments with these ideas.
Materials are rubbed against each other.
Two objects with the same type of charge repel each other.
Two objects are rubbed against each other.
When the distance between objects decreases, the force that the charged objects exert on each other increases.
The rubbed objects exert a greater force on each other when more vigorous rubbing occurs.
The model of two electric charges is enough to explain the experiments we have done so far.
It is possible that the pieces of tape have an electric charge.
To test this hypothesis, we need to place them on a plastic, glass, or wooden table.
We can use the idea that the tapes are from the table to predict the outcome if we pull on one end of each tape.
The pieces of tape should be near the electrical wires.
The tapes were pulled from the table.
If you take two pieces of tape and fold the end, you can't rule out the idea that the pieces of tape are charged.
Pull the handles away from each other and separate them.
To determine the sign of each charge, design an experiment.
The tape is rubbed with silk.
A plastic rod rubbed with felt is negatively charged and a glass rod rubbed with silk is positively charged according to our charge sign convention.
The signs of the charges of the tape pieces can be seen by holding both rods near the two pieces of tape.
The tape is repelled by the rod.
The charged comb attracts un charged paper pieces.
We have learned that objects rubbed with different materials can have different charges.
Un charged lightweight objects, like small bits of paper that have not been rubbed against anything, are attracted to charged objects.
The comb is more attractive to small pieces of aluminum foil.
There are interactions of charged and un charged objects.
The force on the negatively was not charged by the balloon or the wall wall charged balloon.
There is a negatively charged balloon near the wall.
The wall has attractive force on it.
The experiments in Table 14.2 show that both positively and nega tively charged objects are attracted to un charged objects.
We develop conceptual explanations in the next section.
To determine whether an object is charged or not, we need to observe its repulsion from another object.
The charged objects repel or attract each other.
Un charged objects are attracted by them.
If you've ever played with magnets, you know that they have poles.
Like poles repel.
nails, paper clips, etc., are some of the objects that are not magnets.
Un charged objects attract and repel each other.
The magnetic in teraction is just described using different terminology.
The north pole is attracted to the negatively charged rod.
The negatively charged rod attracts the south pole.
The outcome of the second experiment is not in line with the prediction.
If we assume that the magnet behaves like an un charged metal object with both poles attracting negatively and positively charged objects, both outcomes can be explained.
The north and south poles of a magnet are attracted by the same charged rod.
The electric interactions are different from the magnets.
A different mechanism is needed to explain interactions.
The weightless electric fluid was proposed by Benjamin Franklin.
Franklin says that too much electric fluid in an ob ject makes it negatively charged and too little makes it positively charged.
The electric fluid experiment is a simplified model of Millikan and Fletcher's oil drop.
The force exerted by the charged plates P on the drop D balances the force exerted by the gravity.
On the drop, the fluid can move inside the un.
When another charged object is present, the drop falls, causing its sides to posi at constant velocity.
Positively charged plate object attracts a charged object.
The two fluids are in balance in an object that is not rubbed.
Positively charged fluids attract.
The fluids can move inside objects and cause their sides to charge.
The fluid models account for some of our observations so far.
J.J. Thomson explained the results of his experiments in 1897.
They put droplets of oil between the plates.
The electric charge of each oil droplet was only changed by multiples of a single unit of electric charge.
Adding or removing particles changed the electrons and nucleus of the object.
Transfer 14.2 explains that the atoms of the material that gains electrons hold them more tightly than the atoms of the material that loses them.
We now know why rubbed objects have different charges.
The electric charge of each is zero.
One object becomes negatively charged during rub bing.
The other loses an equal amount of electrons and the deficiency of electrons is charged by the other.
No transfer of electrons occurs when you rub two objects against each other.
No transfer occurs when the electrons in both materials are bound the same way.
We can use numbers to represent this process.
A zero can be used to represent a neutral object.
A zero can be made up of both positive and negative numbers.
The negative number of object 1 becomes smaller when we rub it with another object that pulls an electron.
The object is charged.
The sleeves are pulled apart.
The tape is negatively charged.
Some objects acquire a third type of charge after being rubbed.
There is an electric attraction between the sweater and shirt.
Imagine if you will rubbing a bal oon with some new explain how pul ing the sweater and shirt apart leads to type of material.