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13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Part 7
Substituted epoxides can be used in this reaction, with the carbanion usually attacking the less hindered epoxide carbon atom.
If one of the oxirane carbons is unsubstituted, this reaction will work best.
The less hindered epoxide carbon atom is attacked by Organolithium reagents.
Depending on the strength of the carbon atom, Grignard reagents may give a mixture of products.
The bread is held together by the stickyCarbohydrate in wheat.
Hide glue is made from animal hides and hooves.
For hundreds of years Hide glue has been used for wood and paper gluing, and it is still used for fine musical instruments and other articles that are easy to take apart without damaging the wood.
The bond quickly fails in a damp environment if Hide glue is watersoluble.
As it dries, it shrinks to a fraction of its wet volume.
The casein glues were developed to give a stronger bond.
A casein glue is as strong as most woods and will resist water for hours.
It doesn't fill gaps and it doesn't work with metals and plastics.
Imagine a glue that doesn't shrink when it's hardened and fills gaps so that pieces don't need to be fitted closely.
It holds forever in water, is strong, and sticks to anything: wood, metal, plastic, etc.
It lasts forever on a Harrier II jet into an autoclave where the shelf is not hardened, but it is quickly hardened once the pieces are in place.
It can be made so that it fills tiny voids or thick and pasty so that it stays in place.
The carbon-epoxy Epoxies are put in place so that they match the shape of the joint, and the adhere composite is used to make aircraft.
There is no solvent that can evaporate so there are parts that are as strong as steel.
Thepoxies are unaffected by water.
Epoxies use a prepolymer that can be made as gummy as desired, and they use a hardening agent that can be modified to control the curing time.
They have a long shelf life without the hardening agent.
China has become the largest manufacturer and consumer of the resins, which have grown to a market of about $20 billion.
An ahydrlkoxide that snaps shut on the other end is formed under base-catalyzed conditions.
The second epoxide reacts with another molecule.
Two molecules of epichlorohydrin can be reacted with each molecule of bisphenol A.
The effects would continue until the polymerization chains were long, and the material would be of estrogens, which can lead to a solid material.
Excess epichlorohydrin is added to health effects at high enough levels to form short chains with epichlorohydrins on both ends.
There are shorter chains and a runny prepolymer with the use of BPA.
Some of the plastic linings of canned prepolymer can be made with less epichlorohydrin.
When you buy glues, they come in two parts: the prepolymer and the hardener.
The hardener can be any of a wide variety of compounds with bottles and canned food.
The most common hardeners are polyamines.
The liners contain a hardener that can attack the terminal epoxide group and cause a chain reaction.
The hardener can deprotonate a hydroxy group from the inside of a chain.
The network of the final polymer is strong and resistant to chemical attack.
The less highly substituted carbon bonds to the alkoxy group.
Oxygen is used in the air to oxidize.
hydroperoxides and dialkyl peroxides are produced by Autoxidation of ethers.
Bond breaking and bond forming is a reaction that takes place in one step.
The loss of a small molecule such as water or an alcohol can cause a reaction that joins two or more molecules.
A large polyether is used to make complex and solvate cations.
The alkene is usually treated with a peroxyacid.
A compound with three members.
Most often, they are formed by condensation of epichlorohydrin with a dihydroxy compound.
A compound with two carbon atoms and a hydroxy group.
Most of the time, chlorohydrins, bromohydrins, and iodohydrins are found.
One or more of the ring atoms in the compound are elements other than carbon.
An abbreviation for magnesium monoperoxyphthalate, a stable peroxyacid used in large-scale epoxidations.
A compound with a four-membered ether.
The oxygen-oxygen bond is easy to cleave and prone to explosions.
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