The foundation for reelection is Constituency relationships.
The elected official must define the kind of congressperson he or she will be if the essence of a senator or representative is to represent one's constituency.
The definition must begin once elected through an open and free election.
The desires of the people are mirrored by demographic representation.
The style and message of the representative affects symbolic representation.
The last characteristic of representation is how responsive the legislator is.
The way in which a representative responds to the people who elected him or her is called constituent service.
The question of whether the representative should vote his or her own opinion after hearing information on any issue is a long-standing problem for elected officials.
In 1977 representatives were asked if they should look after the needs and interests of their own district or the needs and interests of the nation as a whole.
45 percent of those surveyed said that the interests of the nation should be first, while 65 percent said that if a conflict developed between what they think is best and what the people in their district want, they would follow their own conscience.
Members of Congress have to represent their districts in a way that takes into account organized interests and individual citizens.
Representatives respond personally to written letters and set up mobile offices.
They contact federal agencies, sponsor appointments to service academies, and provide information and services.
Legislation, grants and contracts, give speeches, and attend functions are some of the things organized groups do.
For the district as a whole, representatives get federal projects, look for ways of getting legislation that will increase employment or tax benefits, and support policies that will benefit the geographic area of the district.
Public relations practices such as sending out a congressional letter highlighting a reference in the Congressional Record of individuals or the achievements of people in their districts attempt to get close to the people they represent.
Efforts to reform Congress aim to clean up abuses of the people's branch of government.
Congress has the lowest approval ratings of the three branches of government.
They send a majority of incumbents back to Congress in every election.
The people and their representatives seem to have a love/hate relationship.
Many suggestions have been made to improve the productivity of Congress.
Because of the complicated legislative process, most bills never see the light of day.
Reforms such as streamlining the committee system, improving the coordination of information between the House and the Senate, and requiring some kind of action on all bills proposed have been made.
According to the poll, a majority of Congress believe that they should do what is in the national interest rather than what their voters want.
People think that with the growth of the internet, representatives should be able to get information from their people before voting on important issues.
After the revelations of abuses of the House checking system and House post office, people felt that many House members were unethical.
Congress is not trusted because of the number of representatives taking money from political action committees and the double standard that exists between the application of many laws for them and the public.
Public disclosure is required for income and property holdings.
Some states voted to establish term limits because representatives are so busy running for office.
The Supreme Court ruled in 1995 that term limits for senators and representatives were unconstitutional.
The overall role of Congress has been debated, as Congress either delegates too much power to the executive or tries to take control.
The House of Representatives responded to some of the calls for reform through its Contract with America.
The Contract with America was a platform that the new Republican majority in the House of Representatives used to campaign.
In the first 100 days, this contract became a template for legislative action.
The Republican majority brought to a vote every item in the contract.
On the first day of the 104th Congress, the House voted to reform itself, cutting down the number of committees and their staffs, restricting the terms of committee chairs, and changing the rules.
Many provisions of the contract were defeated or modified by the Senate in order to prevent the House from achieving legislative success.
The bill signed into law by President Clinton mandated representatives to follow the same laws that Americans must follow.
According to a survey, the approval rating of Congress increased from previous years as a result of the Contract with America.
The Republican agenda became less extreme by 1996.
Welfare reform, healthcare, the minimum wage, and balancing of the federal budget were compromises made by the Democrats and President Clinton.
The path for these pieces of legislation to become law was created by the Contract with America.
After the impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1998, relations with Congress deteriorated and the public was distrustful of the institution.
After George W. Bush was elected in 2000, he was able to get a significant part of his legislative agenda passed by working closely with Congress.
The Congress supported the Global War on Terrorism after 9/11.
In the first 100 legislative hours of the new year, the Democrats in the House of Representatives passed a "Six for '06" agenda including the implementation of the 9/11 Commission recommendations, increasing the minimum wage, college tuition tax breaks, and ending tax breaks for big oil companies.
In 2010 the House Republicans offered a "Pledge to America", a document that outlined the platform of Republican candidates running for the House.
The pledge called for an extension of the 2001 Bush tax cuts that were set to expire in 2010, a reduction of government spending, and a repeal of theAffordable Health Care Act.
The qualifications for members of the House of Representatives can be found in the Constitution.
In order to get programs, projects, and grants moving along the legislative process, senators and representatives are often criticized for making deals with other legislators or the president.
There are many responsibilities for the Speaker of the House.
The qualifications for the Senate and the president are different.
The president can't be naturalized.
Over 20 states have imposed a term limit on their citizens.
You should be able to identify that characteristic from Chapter 1.
A pluralistic approach suggests that candidates come from a broad spectrum.
A conservative approach suggests a candidate wants less government.
Centrist and majoritarian positions are taken after the election.
Negative publicity can result from press coverage and taking positions on key social issues, and the mere appearance at town meetings does not translate into votes.
PAC donations can counter wealth.
If the endorsement is by a group that the voter doesn't agree with, it doesn't affect why a voter would support a particular candidate.
Even though choices A, B, C, and E are all functions of elected officials, the most important role a senator or representative can have is to recommend a voter's child to a service academy.
Pork barrel legislation can be added as riders to other pieces of legislation.
Prior to that, the senators were selected by the state legislature.
The bills dealing with appropriations are reviewed by the Ways and Means Committee.
The Senate has an appropriations committee.
There is no policy committee and the military is dealt with by the armed services committee.
The House and Senate have pro tems.
The House Majority Leader and Majority Whip play specific functions dealing with party unity and delivering on the legislative agenda set forth by the majority party.
It is up to each party to pick committees for their members, even though the speaker has significant input.
The speaker has a say in the selection of committee chairs.
In every area of the campaign, incumbents have an advantage over their challengers.
Studies show that the factors mentioned in choices B, C, D, and E make incumbents more likely to be elected.
This doesn't happen when the president's popularity is low.
The Rules Committee decides the order of pending legislation and House policy, whereas the other committees only review legislation germane to a particular area.
It could be a committee like the Watergate or Iran-Contra Committee.
The Banking Committee was a standing committee.
The House Judiciary Committee was supposed to hear the evidence.
Voters owe their representatives and senators a debt of thanks because they perceive them as providers for their districts.
The reelection chances of a representative or senator who can successfully deliver the pork are helped by the fact that they can get national coverage and donations from the political action committee.
The table shows the characteristics of Congress from 1981 to 1999.
The increase of female representatives and senators has been dramatic.
Between 40 and 60 years old, there are more representatives and senators.
More senators have served between one and three terms.
The increase in female representatives was due to gender politics, more than double the number of representatives and triple the number of senators since 1980.
The year of the woman in politics was 1992 when four women were elected to the Senate and nineteen to the House.
The increase in making woman-related issues part of the public agenda was the impact that this had on the Congress.
Economic and social issues are found in nature.
The response of these newly elected representatives to single mothers' concerns, to abortion rights, and to protection by the government of "safety net" issues has become a priority.
Even with the increase in women representatives, they are still only a small percentage of the entire House and Senate.
The 1994 congressional election was an important turning point in the history of the institution.
The freshman class of the House had a significant impact on the House.
Newly elected Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich realized that this core group represented the hopes of the conservative Republican revolution and pushed major reforms through the House with the support of these newly elected congressmen.
The reforms included term limits for committee chairs and rules that would make it easier for less senior members to be involved in the legislative process.
The Republicans were able to push through part of their Contract with America in the first 100 days of the 104th Congress because of the support of the new representatives.
The budget battle waged against President Clinton resulted in two government shutdowns because of the power given to these inexperienced congressmen.
Each characteristic is earned a point.
Three characteristics are discussed and one point is earned for each of them.
There must be a description of the change on Congress in the explanations.
Each of the two characteristics has had an impact on Congress.