19 -- Part 4: Chapter Drills: Answers and Explanations
The opponent process theory and the Yerkes-Dodson law are not theories of emotion.
He is able to see that he is not in danger.
The cognitive interpretation of the physiological response that he is having is related to the two-factor theory.
The James-Lange theory wouldn't work here because it would only lead to one emotional output.
The Cannon-Bard theory doesn't connect the cognitive interpretation of the response.
The answer is correct.
The opponent-process theory shows how addiction can create a vicious cycle in which the user takes more and more drugs to get the effect they want.
Drug use is not an instinct.
There is nothing in the question concerning arousal.
Choice cannot be correct because the two-factor theory is one of emotion, and you can also cross out because the drive-reduction theory wouldn't have an exacerbated cycle.
This is the correct answer.
Suppressed appetite is not a symptom of chronic stress and may be a symptom of acute stress.
Chronic stress is defined as lasting for weeks, months, or even years.
The hypothalamus is in charge of keeping the body in balance.
The thalamus is described in choice A, the hippocampus is described in choice C, the pituitary is described in choice D, and the amygdala is described in choice E. The answer is correct.
In Freudian theory, the ego is the part of the mind that makes up the id, the internal representation of rules, morals, and social obligations known as the superego, and the realities of the world.
The ego tries to find acceptable ways to satisfy desires.
Choices are concepts from Jungian theory and are not part of the mind in Freudian theory.
The psychodynamic defense mechanism that involves the ego reversing the direction of a disturbing or unacceptable desire to make that desire safer and more acceptable is called reaction formation.
Other defense mechanisms are defined as displacement, regression, compensation and rationalization.
Albert Bandura's theory does not concern itself with unconscious desires or mechanisms, but focuses on an individual's concepts and beliefs.
Freud's original conception of personality was modified or expanded by many psychodynamic theorists.
Self-actualization is the process by which an individual modifies and grows over time in ways that allow him/her to reach full potential and ability.
Rogers believes that self-actualization is the ultimate purpose of human existence.
The value we place on ourselves is often a product of self-actualization, but not the actual process.
A person's belief in his/her own competence is referred to as choice.
Raymond Cattell designed thePersonality Factor to investigate the inherited, enduring, and situationally stable tendencies that govern individual personality.
The Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children are intelligence tests.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Version Five is used for identification and classification of mental/behavioral disorders, and analysis of variance is a statistical technique.
Anne is not very competent at riding a bike, which shows she has a low self-efficacy.
She knows she can get better at riding a bike if she practices.
She has control over her improvements.
The answer is correct.
Multiple positive attributes will surround a person who already possesses some.
The halo effect suggests that Lukas has other positive attributes, such as being trustworthy.
The answer is correct.
When she kicks the ice instead of her coach or herself, she is showing displacement since she directs her anger toward the ice.
The answer is correct.
The anima and animus are the male and female qualities that lie in each personality.
This is in support of (C).
The test-makers hope that the key words are attractive.
The choices are trust vs. mistrust and more of a human viewpoint.
Cara is showing her positive self-esteem by feeling good about herself.
The question doesn't show if she is proficient at a task or not.
The self-concept is a larger umbrella that includes self-esteem, efficacy, etc.
Choices are incorrect because they are defense mechanisms.
The answer is correct.
The person is most likely having a psychotic episode.
Choices and obsessions are related to a different disorder.
delusions are relevant to psychosis, but they are not based in reality, and the question stem explicitly says he hears voices, not that he believes anything in particular.
Choice is not a psychological concept.
Only (C), delusions, fits the question stem.
There is no discernable physical problem when a psychological difficulty becomes a deficit in physiological function.
Choice is a disorder characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania and paranoid disorder with feelings of persecution.
Choice is an organic disorder that is linked to a physical deficit in the brain or nervous system.
Dissociative disorders are characterized by loss of memory and disruption in the sense of identity.
A choice is more characteristic of certain types of disorders.
Choice is not a diagnostic criterion or a characteristic of the disorder, as many with such disorders have extensive social networks.
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that influences mood and seems to be present at lower-than-usual levels in many of those diagnosed with depression.
Choice (A), acetylcholine, has been associated with the expression of bipolar behavior when present in greater-than-average amounts.
Dopamine deficits can be implicated in Parkinson's disease, but not in depression.
DSM-5 defines anxiety disorders as feelings of tension, nervousness, fear, and sometimes panic.
All of the choices qualify except for anxious personality disorder.
The girl is most likely suffering from a disorder that causes her to forget things.
Dissociative fugue sufferers tend to wander or travel and establish new identities based on who they think they are.
Somatoform disorder involves physical illness or injury.
Choice is a psychotic illness that is characterized by non-bizarre delusions, with no accompanying hallucinations, mood disturbances, or flattening of affect; it is not a symptom of a delusional disorder.
There are three major clusters of personality disorders, none of which accurately explain the girl described in the question stem.
Although it is possible that the girl's symptoms are feigned in an attempt to seek attention, a possible symptom of histrionic personality disorder, the question stem would need to provide concrete information to draw this conclusion.
There is no direct evidence of schizophrenia in the question stem.
Conversion disorder is a somatoform disorder in which a person is blind, deafness, or other symptoms of sensory or motor failure without a physical cause.
Hypochondriasis is a constant fear of illness, not conversion disorder.
Choice, panic attacks, and severe anxiety are symptoms of anxiety disorders, while conversion disorder is a type of somatoform disorder.
There are frequent vague complaints about physical symptoms that are characteristic of somatization disorder and religious obsessions that remind you of religious conversion, but that is not the meaning of conversion in this question.
Schizoid personality disorder is a personality disorder.
The person with Cluster B disorders are more emotional and dramatic than this person.
A lot of diagnoses, like obsessive-compulsive disorder, are only found in adulthood.
This is a child, so it must be a neurological disorder.
Since he is having difficulty engaging with peers, the child is not showing impulsivity/hyperactivity or inattention, but rather restrictive behavior.
This is a description of the condition.
The answer is correct.
Body dysmorphic disorder is not a feeding disorder because it does not involve eating.
obsessive thoughts about body parts are what characterizes it.
This is in the category of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders.
In order to facilitate the client's own tendencies toward growth and fulfillment, client-centered therapy is concerned with trying to understand the client's view of the world and how it affects him or her.
The ability to view the world through the eyes of the client is critical to successful communication between client and therapist.
Psychoanalysis therapy considers communication and understanding the client's view of the world important, but it tends to discourage emotional or personal involvement with the patient.
Psychoanalytic therapists believe that a stance of detachment is best for the encouragement of transference, which helps to reveal the nature of the patient's conflicts.
implosion therapy is a behavioral approach with little emphasis on the kind of client-therapist relationship considered essential to client-centered therapy.
Behavioral approaches to therapy are concerned with treating maladaptive or troubling symptoms, rather than underlying causes, and in this school of thought there are no hidden "deep" underlying causes.
Behavioral therapies are used with people who want to change specific behaviors, such as those who suffer from phobias.
The more symptom-oriented behavioral techniques are usually not the treatment of choice with conditions that involve more than just a specific maladaptive behavior and/or altered mental states.
Psychoanalytic therapy focuses on probing past defense mechanisms to understand the unconscious roots of problems, and its practitioners believe that troubling behaviors or symptoms cannot possibly cease until a patient gains insight into such unconscious roots.
In this approach, treating just symptoms through behavioral methods without addressing the underlying hidden causes will not result in a lasting cure and may instead result in symptoms returning or new ones manifest.
Choices (A) and (C) are not generally criticisms leveled at behavioral therapy by psychoanalysts, but for those who do it the other way around, these are criticisms of psychoanalytic approaches often made by behaviorists.
Humanistic or client-centered therapists are more likely to make the criticism in D.
Albert Ellis formulated this cognitive approach, which concentrates on modifying incorrect thoughts or cognitions that lead to maladaptive emotional and behavioral responses.
The concepts of hierarchy of needs and self-actualization, as well as a trait theory of personality, are associated with choice.
Anticoagulants are not used for psychotherapeutic purposes, they are used to modify the ability of the blood to clot.
Both (C) and (E) are classes of drugs that belong to the larger family of antidepressants and are used for the reduction of anxiety.
There is nothing progressive about going to the top of the Empire State Building for acrophobia therapy.
Instead, the therapist is choosing a situation in which Judy will most likely have a very strong reaction at first, but will hopefully have less of a reaction the longer she knows she won't fall off the ledge.
This technique is called flooding.
The therapist is not trying to make Judy not like something.
Choice, implosion, is similar to flooding, but it uses visualization techniques instead of going to a location.
There is no contract in the question.
A behavioral therapist tries to modify behavior by extinguishing maladaptive behaviors.
extinction procedures will be used to modify behaviors.
A, B, and C are related to psychoanalysis, while E is related to humanistic therapy.
The answer is correct.
Most of the time, SSRIs are used as antidepressants.
They would most likely be used for depression.
A therapist would most likely use free association.
Choices, B, and D are techniques used in behavioral therapy.
Carl Rogers is synonymous with therapy.
He used the phrase "unconditional positive regard" so he was most concerned with treating other humans with respect and compassion.
The term humanism came about.
People tend to underestimate a person's disposition and underestimate situational circumstances when evaluating another person's behavior.
Both A and C are examples of internal control.
An example of an external attribution is choice blaming a teacher for one's failures.
Karen is balancing personal and situational attributes in evaluating her friend's behavior.
In the Asch conformity experiments, many factors influenced the degree to which an experimental subject would show conformity to the obviously wrong group opinion, but the subject's age did not show a consistent effect in this regard.
It seems to take a group of at least three people for a subject to go along with the rest of the group.
Students who were randomly labeled as likely to experience significant jumps in academic test scores in the coming semester did indeed perform to expectations on those tests at the end of the semester, according to the self-fulfilling prophecy.
The Hawthorne effect refers to the observation that students or workers who know they are being monitored tend to perform better, even if they don't know why they are being monitored.
The Kandel effect is associated with research into learning and neuroscience in sea slugs, cognitive dissonance is related to the discomfort that comes from conflicting behavior and beliefs, and the Ainsworth effect is related to studies of attachment in human infants.
The bystander effect is when people defer to one another to respond to a situation.
It can happen when members of a group perform negative behaviors that no one in the group will take responsibility for.
Choice, an altruistic orientation, refers to the decision-making paradigm in which individuals wish to maximize the outcome for others, but it could also be applied to this situation as a countervailing force.
The illusory correlation refers to the false presumption that certain groups are associated with certain stereotypes or behaviors, and the just-world hypothesis is the belief that because the world is basically fair, people deserve whatever befalls them, positive or negative.
Choice deals with conflicting beliefs and behaviors.
The teenager is trying to get his curfew extended in small amounts until he gets the curfew he wants.
Choice is an example of the "door-in-the-face" technique, in which one asks for more than one actually wants, expecting to be turned down; one can then ask for the smaller, "more reasonable" request, which is more likely to be.
People are more likely to comply with or be persuaded by people they think are similar to them, as in (D), or by people they think will give them a desired reward, as in (E).
The man who does not have health insurance in A thinks that he will be fine.
The woman observing the man who lost his house in (B) most likely feels for him, but she thinks he didn't act on getting health insurance.
The clearest example of the self-serving bias is Choice, since the toddler attributes building the block tower to herself, but blames the blocks instead of herself when they tumble to the ground.
The self-serving bias is when a person takes credit for positive achievements and blames someone else for the negative ones.
The Rosenthal Effect, in which the teacher believes in Yuan and then goes and studies for his exam, is clearly shown by Choice.
The environment causes conditions that affect a large number of the residents described in the answer choice.