The large free mixed-race population secured some political rights from the French Assembly but then rose in rebellion when the slave-owning elite reacted violently.
Francois Toussaint was the leader of the insurrection.
He organized the rebels and wrote the nation's first constitution.
Toussaint became a symbol of resistance to oppression to slaves everywhere because he was portrayed as a fiend by slave owners.
The political and cultural transformation of the Western world can be traced back to the Haitian slave rebellion.
There were profound changes to the economy, politics, and intellectual life.
The Industrial Revolution increased manufacturing productivity and led to greater global interdependence.
Intellectuals questioned the place of monarchy and religion in society.
Merchants, professionals, and manufacturers enriched by economic dynamism provided an audience for the new intellectual currents as they pressed for a larger political role.
Commoners entered political life, science took the place of religion in intellectual life, and economies opened to competition in the West's new order.
Without false starts or setbacks, this transformation wouldn't have taken place.
The church fought against the claims of science, monarchs and nobles struggled to retain their ancient privileges, and the Imperial powers resisted the loss of colonies.
In Europe and the Americas, the ideals of the revolutionary movements were sometimes defeated, but they were still alive and well in the twentieth century.
The American Revolution began after the cost of wars fought among Europe's major powers over colonies and trade.
The central actors in these global struggles were Britain, France, and Spain.
These nations had previously fought unpopular wars and paid for them with new taxes, but changes in Western intellectual and political environments now produced a much more critical response.
Questions about the rights of individuals and the authority of political institutions were raised by any effort to extend monarchical power.
Competition among European powers became global in character in the 17th century.
The newly independent Netherlands attacked the American and Asian colonies of Spain and Portugal.
Great Britain attacked Spanish fleets in the Americas.
The defense of trade routes and distant colonies was more difficult because of the rivalries.
The ability of European powers to pay for their ambitions was tested in the 18th century.
As Dutch power waned, Britain and France began a long struggle for political preeminence in western Europe and for territory and trade outlets in the Americas and Asia.
Europe's great powers participated in the War of the Spanish Succession.
The War of Austrian Succession began after a war between Britain and Spain.
The Seven Years War began after a frontier conflict between French and British forces and their Amerindian allies.
Canada and its holdings in India were surrendered by France as Britain emerged with undisputed control of North America east of the Mississippi River.
The cost of these conflicts was different from earlier wars.
Traditional taxes no longer cover the obligations of governments.
In 1763 war debt reached PS137 million and interest payments alone exceeded PS5 million, as Britain's total budget before the Seven Years War had averaged only PS8 million.
Fiscal crises overtook one European government after another.
The need for new revenues provoked debate and confrontation within a vastly expanded and more critical public in an intellectual environment transformed by the Enlightenment.
European intellectuals wanted to change the belief that one could reform society by discovering knowledge and organizing reference materials.
Similar forms of disciplined investigation might reveal the laws of human nature if scientists could understand nature's laws.
Others wondered if society and government could be better regulated and more productive if they were guided by science.
The revolutionary movements of the late eighteenth century were guided by these new perspectives and intellectual optimism.
The English political philosopher John Locke argued in 1690 that governments were created to protect life, liberty, and property and that the people had a right to rebel when a monarch violated these natural rights.
Locke assumed that individual rights were the foundation of civil government.
Locke emphasized the importance of individual rights secured in the will of the people, while Rousseau was much more distrustful of society and government.
Rousseau was not an Enlightenment thinker.
The era's intellectuals disagreed about principles and objectives, and there was never a uniform pro gram for political and social reform.
While the Enlightenment is associated with hostility toward religion and monarchy, few intellectuals openly expressed their feelings.
Europe's monarchs were thought to be agents of political and economic reform by one of the Enlightenment's most critical intellects.
Charles III of Spain, Catherine the Great of Russia, and Frederick the Great of Prussia supported and promoted the dissemination of new ideas.
They realized that the Enlightenment's efforts to expand royal authority at the expense of religious institutions, the nobility, and regional autonomy were supported by elements of the Enlightenment.
Civil servants selected on merit, the creation of national legal systems, and the modernization of tax systems united many of Europe's monarchs and intellectuals.
The era's passion for science and technology gave it the potential to improve economic performance.
Europe's monarchs moved quickly to suppress or ban radical ideas that promoted republicanism or directly attacked religion, even though they were willing to embrace reform proposals when they served royal interests.
Too many channels of communication allowed a thoroughgoing suppression of ideas.
The courts of foreign rivals tended to favor intellectuals who were found to have been subjected to censorship.
The major intellectuals of the Enlightenment collaborated with each other.
This communication led to many firsthand contacts among the intellectuals of different nations and helped create a more coherent assault on the values associated with the ancien regime.
Rousseau met a Scottish philosopher.
Rousseau sought refuge in Britain when he feared arrest.
In England and Prussia, Voltaire sought protection.
The dissemination of new ideas was done by women.
Middle-class women in England bought and discussed books.
Some were important contributors to intellectual life as writers and commentators, raising the issue of the rights of women.
In Paris, wealthy women made their homes centers of debate.
They brought together philosophers, social critics, artists, members of the aristocracy and the commercial elite.
The middle class in Europe and the Western Hemisphere was influenced by the intellectual ferment of the era.
The members of this class were eager consumers of inexpensive newspapers and journals.
Traditional institutions of censorship were overwhelmed by the broadening of the intellectual audience.
Scientific discoveries, new technologies, and controversial works on human nature and politics can be found at new public venues like the thousands of coffee-houses and teashops of cities and market towns.
European intellectuals were interested in the Americas.
Many looked to Britain's North American colonies for confirmation of their belief that human nature unconstrained by the corrupted practices of Europe's old order would quickly produce material abundance and social justice.
He retired after the American Revolution.
The Philadelphia Free Library, the American Philosophical Society, and the University of Pennsylvania were all created by Franklin.
His contributions were both theoretical and practical.
He invented bifocal glasses, the lightning rod, and an efficient wood-burning stove.
Franklin was a political figure.
He was a delegate to the Continental Congress that issued the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
He became the symbol of the era when he became ambassador to Paris.
Europe's intellectual ferment was shared by the Western Hemisphere.
As the Enlightenment penetrated the New World, intellectuals debated the famous text, which lays out the legitimacy of colonialism.
The United States was radicalized by European efforts to reform colonial policies by altering Enlightenment principles on nial institutions.
People are compelled to accept dependence and inferiority explicit.
Beer drinking is associated with good humor and prosperity in an idealized London street scene.
The corpulent figure in the left foreground is reading a copy of the king's speech.
He can offer commentary to his drinking companions as he reads.
The importance of faith to human happiness was emphasized by its followers.
They emphasized duty and obligation to the community of believers in opposition to the concern for individual rights and individual fulfillment common in the works of the Enlightenment.
For the politics of the era, they rejected their enemies' enthusiasm for change and reminded their readers of the importance of history.
The Counter Enlightenment provided ideological support for the conservative and antidemocratic movements of the 19th century.
While intellectuals debated the rational and secular enthusiasms of the Enlightenment, most people in Western society remained loyal to competing cultural values.
Regional folk cultures were nourished by religious practices that encouraged emotional release.
The rights and obligations that connected people with their rulers were included in these cultural traditions.
They were likely to face violent opposition if they violated these understandings.
Although monarchs viewed these changes as reforms, common people often saw them as violations of sacred customs and responded with bread riots, tax protests, and attacks on royal officials.
The violent actions sought to preserve custom and precedent.
Harvest festivals, religious holidays, and country fairs were banned by the Enlightenment-era reformers to bring order and discipline to the populace.
These events were popular celebrations of sexuality and individuality as well as opportunities for masked and costumed celebrants to mock the greed, pretension, and foolishness of government officials, the wealthy, and the clergy.
cockfighting and bearbaiting were popular in preindustrial mass culture, but reformers viewed them as corrupt and decadent.
The wars fought to protect colonies and trade routes overwhelmed resist the growth of government power and the fiscal resources of European powers.
In the Counter Enlightenment, some intellectuals rejected tests that were used to attack tradition and religion.
The effort to create uniform and rational administration pro revolutionary potential only came about because of popular protest.
In British North America, clumsy efforts to increase colonial taxes to cover rising defense expenditures and to diminish the power of elected colonial legislatures incensed a populace accustomed to local autonomy.
The American Revolution ushered in a centurylong process of political and cultural transformation in Europe and the Americas.
By the end of the revolutionary century, the authority of monarchs and religion had been limited by the constitutions.
The social order was replaced by a new social ideal emphasizing competition and social mobility as a result of revolutionary changes in manufacturing and commerce.
The British government faced two problems after defeating the French.
As settlers pushed west into Amerindian lands, Britain worried about renewed conflict and rising military expenses.
With heavy debts, Britain tried to limit settler pressure on Amerindian lands and get colonists to shoulder more of the costs of colonial defense and administration.
In the Great Lakes region, the British tried to contain costs by reducing fur prices and refusing to continue the French practice of giving gifts and paying rent for frontier forts.
Lower fur prices forced native peoples to hunt more aggressively, putting pressure on the environment and endangering some species.
The situation got worse when settlers and white trappers moved to compete with indigenous hunters.
There was renewed violence along the frontier led by a chief.
The British military was defeated within a year after being driven from some western outposts by his broad alliance of native peoples.
The British government panicked when they realized that the western limit for settlement undermined the claims of thousands of established farmers.
No one was happy.
Britain tried to annex western territories to Quebec in order to slow the movement of settlers onto Amerindian lands.
The colonies were angry at this.
frontier issues did not lead to a breech.
British efforts to transfer the cost of imperial wars to the colonists through a campaign of fiscal reforms and new taxes sparked a political confrontation that eventually led to rebellion.
New England's profitable trade with Spanish and French Caribbean sugar colonies is in danger.
The colonies' chronic balance-of-payments deficits made it necessary for Britain to outlaw paper money.
Angry colonists organized boycotts of British goods as a response to these measures.
The Stamp Act of 1765 was a tax on legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all printed material.
The leading roles in protests were assumed by holders of high office and members of the colonial elite.
Women from prominent colonial families organized boycotts of British goods after critics of these measures used fiery political language.
The production of homespun textiles was seen as a patriotic obligation by colonial women.
The Sons of Liberty held public meetings, intimidating royal officials, and organized committees to enforce the boycotts.
Britain imposed new taxes and duties after the repeal of the Stamp Act.
British troops were sent to quell colonial riots.
The supposition is ridiculous and absurd, as highwaymen and robbers attempt it.
Can you reconcile it with your own good sense, that a group of men in Great Britain have little intercourse with America?
British authorities threatened colonial liberties after boycotts and attacks on royal officials.
The legislature of Massachusetts was dissolved and two armies were sent to Boston.
After five people were killed in Boston by British soldiers, support for a complete break with Britain grew.
The Boston massacre exposed the naked force on which colonial rule rested and radicalized public opinion throughout the colonies.
The company has a monopoly to import tea.
The constitutional issue of Parliament's right to tax the colonies was raised again.
The crisis came to a head when protesters dumped tea into Boston harbor.
Thomas Gage, a military man, was appointed governor of Massachusetts and the port of Boston was closed.
British troops were in charge of public order in Boston.
Rebellion was inevitable because of the militarization of colonial government.
When representatives elected to the Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1786, they already fought British troops in Massachusetts.
The colonies were on the verge of revolution.
All men are created equal, endowed with certain unalienable rights, and that governments are instituted among men to secure these rights.
The language of revolution and popular protest around the world would be influenced by the Declaration's affirmation of popular sovereignty and individual rights.
Additional military forces were sent to the colonies by Great Britain.
In the colonies, Britain had 50,000 troops and 30,000 German mercenaries.
The British army found it difficult to control the countryside despite having a large loyalist community.
Although British forces won most of the battles, Washington slowly built a competent Continental army as well as civilian support networks that provided supplies and financial resources.
The British government tried to find a solution to colonial grievances.
Efforts to resolve the conflict over taxes failed and an offer to roll back the clock and reestablish the administrative arrangements of 1763 made little headway.
The British were not able to find a political solution before revolutionary institutions were in place.
The British government lost a chance to mobilize and give direction to the large number of loyalists in the colonies by allowing confrontation.
Both sides sought to befriend the Amerindians along the Canadian border.
After 1722) Tuscarora, members of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy, had protected their traditional lands with a combination of diplomacy and warfare.
The American Revolution caused settlers to either join the rebels or remain loyal.
The Mohawk was a valuable British ally.
His raids along the northern frontier earned him a title.
He helped translate Protestant religious tracts into Mohawk.
He traveled to London for an audience with George III and was friendly with many loyalist families.
The future of the Mohawk was put at risk by the defeat of John Burgoyne in 1777.
After the victory, American forces destroyed the political and military power of the Iroquois villages.
The loyalists joined the exodus to Canada after Britain's defeat.
France entered the war with the United States after the British defeat at Saratoga.
The British were forced to defend their colonies in the Caribbean because of French military help.
The final battle was fought in Virginia in 1781 and the French contribution was clear.
The Continental Congress sent representatives to the peace conference with instructions to work with the French.
Most of the major battles were won by the British army.
The American revolutionaries eventually won a comprehensive military and political victory.
America's peace delegation chose to negotiate directly with Britain and got a generous settlement.
The Treaty of Paris established generous boundaries for the former colonies.
The United States promised to repay prewar debts to British merchants and to allow loyalists to recover property that was seized.
Thousands of loyalists left for Canada because they were badly treated.
Many colonies created new governments before the Declaration of Independence.
The new states summoned convention to draft their charters.
Europeans were fascinated by the drafting of constitutions.
Many state constitutions were published in Europe.
State constitutions granted broad powers to the legislature and placed severe limits on executive authority.
Bills of rights are included in many state constitutions.
It was more difficult to make a national constitution.
Each state had a single vote in the one-house legislature.
Nine votes were needed to declare war, impose taxes, and coining or borrowing money in the Revolutionary Changes in the Atlantic World.
The executive power was exercised by a committee.
It is remarkable that this government defeated Great Britain.
The peace treaty's unpopular requirements such as the recognition of loyalist property claims, the payment of prewar debts, and the payment of military salaries and pensions to veterans were not enforced by the confed eration.
Virginia invited the other states to discuss the government's failure to deal with trade issues.
There was a call for a new convention to be held in Philadelphia.
A rebellion led by Revolutionary War veterans gave delegates a sense of importance.
The meeting took place during the American Revolution.
The purpose of the convention was to render the constitution of the federal government adequate to the exigencies of the union, but the delegates secretly undertook to write a new constitution with George Washington serving as presid to write the Constitution.
The debate focused on representation, electoral procedures, executive powers, and the relation ship between the federal government and the states.
The compromise gave power to the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
The president was to be indirectly elected by voters in the states.
The most democratic government of the era did not include full political rights for the adult population.
The institution of slavery was protected by southern leaders.
The expense of frontier defense was limited by delegates from the southern part of the country.
Women had boycotted British goods and had armed conflict with British troops that led to relief and charitable organizations during the calling of the Continental Congress and the Declaration of the war.
Some had served in the military.
French support for the American Revolution was crucial.
The American states supported the creation of a new constitu sey that gave the vote to women and African Americans.
The French Revolution undermined traditional monarchy and hereditary aristocracy as well as the power of the Catholic Church but, unlike the American Revolution, did not create enduring representative institutions.
The entrenched privileges of an established church, monarchy, and aristocracy were not directly confronted by the colonial revolution in North America.
Mass participation in political life and radicalization of the democratic tradition were some of the achievements of the French Revolution.
The popular demagogues and the dictatorship of Napoleon were the result of the political passions unleashed by revolutionary events in France.
The French society was divided into three estates.
The clergy numbered 130,000 in a nation of 28 million.
Most of the top positions in the church were held by members of the hereditary nobility.
The church made a lot of money from the economy in the form of tithes and fees, but it didn't pay a lot of taxes.
About 30 percent of the land was controlled by the nobility, the Second Estate, which retained ancient rights on most of the rest.
Nobles held a lot of positions.
nobles were important participants in wholesale trade, banking, manufacturing, and mining.
The estate was similar to the clergy, with important differences in wealth, power, and outlook separated the higher from the lower nobility.
Wealthy commoners who purchased administrative and judicial offices claimed noble status.
Everyone else was included in the Third Estate.
In the 18th century, the number of propertied and successful commoners grew rapidly.
The wealth of the Third Estate was dominated by commerce, finance, and manufacturing.
A third of the nation's land was owned by wealthy commoners.
This literate and socially ambitious group supported an expanding publishing industry, subsidized the fine arts, and purchased many of the extravagant new homes built in Paris and other cities.
By 1780 poor harvests had increased the cost of living and led to a decline in consumer demand for their products.
They were rich enough to be aware of the growing criticism of the king, but they didn't have the means to influence policy.
It was common.
Peasants made up 80 percent of the French population.
Young children were forced to seek seasonal work due to the poverty and vulnerability of their families.
Visitors from other European nations were shocked by the living conditions in Paris and other French cities.
There were beggars and prostitutes on the city streets.
The French poor are shown to be wretched by the problem of child abandonment.
At least 40,000 children were given up by their parents on the eve of the French Revolution.
The majority of these children died of neglect, and their belief that they would be adopted was a convenient fiction.