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39.1 Diversity of Skeletons
The body warms up when the skeletal muscles give off heat.
There are several examples of how skeletons are adapted.
Skeletons are support systems for animals, providing rigidity, protection, and surfaces for muscle attachment.
Different types of skeletons are found in the animal kingdom.
In echinoderms, the endoskeleton is composed of calcareous plates, while in vertebrates it is composed of bone, or both.
Mobility can be achieved in animals that lack a hard skeleton, a fluid-filled stomach or contraction of muscles.
Consider that a garden hose stiffens when filled with water, and that a water-filled balloon changes shape when squeezed at one end.
An animal with a hydrostatic skeleton can change shape and perform a variety of movements.
The hydras and planarians use their fluid-filled stomach as a skeleton.
The hydra has skeletons that can be extended to capture food.
When their longitudinal muscles contract, roundworms have a fluid-filled pseudocoelom.
The coelom of annelids, such as earthworms, has septa that divide it into compartments.
The segments become thinner when the muscles contract.
The segments become thicker and shorter when longitudinal muscles contract.
By alternating circular muscle contraction and longitudinal muscle contraction, the animal moves forward.
The coelom is made up of septa and each body segment is a separate unit.
The circular and longitudinal muscles are present.
A few segments extend as circular muscles contract.
The worm is held in place by setae, needlelike structures on each segment of the body.
A portion of the body is brought forward as longitudinal muscles contract.
The events occur down the length of the worm.
clams and sea stars use muscular hydrostats to extend their feet.
Spiders and moths depend on them to move their legs.
An elephant's trunk movement involves a muscular hydrostat that allows the animal to reach high into trees, pick up a piece of food off the ground, or manipulate other objects.
Increasing its thickness and weight can be used to improve its strength, but it leaves less room for internal organs.
A thick and non mobile calcium carbonate shell is used for protection against the environment in molluscs.
As the animal grows, the shell can grow.
Chitin is a strong, flexible, nitrogenous polysaccharide that is found in arthropods.
arthropods that live on land have an important feature that protects them against wear and tear and desiccation.
The appendages of arthropods allow them to crawl, fly, and swim.
Muscle contraction is supported by eoskeletons.
The arthropod's skeleton is not fully formed until it dries and hardens, which means that the animal is more vulnerable to predators and muscle contraction may not translate into body movements.
There is a cicada in this photo.
There are rigid internal structures in both echinoderms and vertebrates.
The skeletons of echinoderms are made of spicules and plates of calcium carbonate.
The endoskeleton is not a living tissue.
Other animals, such as fish, lizards, birds, and mammals, have skeletons made of bone and cartilage.
The advantages are listed in Figure 39.3.
It's not necessary for an animal to be molted.
It supports the weight of a large animal.
There is protection to vital internal organs, but it is also protected by the soft tissues around it.
Soft tissue injuries are usually easier to repair than hard skeleton injuries.
Compared to arthropod appendages, vertebrate limbs are more flexible and have different types of joints, allowing for even more complex movements.
The skeletons of mammals come in many different shapes and sizes.
The streamlined, torpedo-shaped skeleton of aquatic animals such as seals, sea lions, whales, and dolphins facilitates movement through water.
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