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23.3 Evolution of Lycophytes: Vascular Tissue
The natural landscape is dominated by nearly all habitats.
There is a conducting tissue that transports plant resources.
The evolution of xylem was essential to the evolution of upright and taller plants because the cell walls of the conducting cells contain a material that strengthens plant cell walls.
Modern-day time machines are glaciers.
Glacierologists are able to understand the mysteries of our prehistoric world.
Global climate change can be revealed by Glaciology.
Once unfrozen, ancient microbes begin to live again and become viable.
The mosses are ancient plants that first colonized the world.
Their simplicity allows them to survive in extreme conditions.
It had never been known if modern-day bryophytes could live after being frozen for many years.
The samples were found to be 400 years old and present during the Little Ice Age.
The gametophyte tissue samples were ground up and put in the soil.
Bryophytes exhibit remarkable totipotency in extreme conditions.
A new view of glaciers has been discovered.
There is more to the story that we now know about.
The terrain exposed by retreating ice is no longer lifeless or barren.
The key to recolonizing the land surrounding a retreating glacier is old bryophytes.
The frozen world underneath glaciers provides a genetic source for both microbes and plants.
The sample was found at the edge of the glacier.
The recovery site of ancient bryophytes is located in the retreating glacier.
There are implications of totipotency in extreme environments.
The rhyniophytes were small and had no leaves or roots.
They consisted of a stem that was evenly distributed to produce branches.
The plant produced many sporangia, and therefore many more, instead of the single sporangium.
Second, branching is a characteristic of plants.
The lycophytes and all other plants have a dominant sporophyte generation.
The first plants had leaves and roots.
The organization of the tissue in the roots of lycophytes is much the same as it was in the stems of the fossils.
The club mosses is the common name for the strobili.
The strobili is where meiosis takes place and where the sporangia are found.
The aerial stem and microphylls contain tissue from the underground stem.
A stem is underground.
True roots are produced along its length.
Microphylls have a single strand of tissue.
Megaphylls have several branches of the same tissue.
These steps show how megaphylls may have evolved.
Megaphylls can gather more sunlight and produce more organic food than microphylls.
The structures of sporangia have been described as spore- producing.
There are two types of spores.
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