Chapter 30 -- Part 4: The Great Depression and World War II
The world was plunged into Depression.
The best single-volume history of the war in the Pacific is the book that focuses on the war from the Japanese and American perspectives.
The war's scientific, psychological, and economic dimensions are explored.
The film was directed by Leni Riefenstahl.
It depicts the 1934 Nuremberg Nazi rally as a celebration of the birth of the Reich.
The definitive documentary on World War II was produced in Britain, and is narrated by a famous actor.
The story of the Battle of Iwo Jima is told from the perspective of the Japanese soldiers.
The movie is directed by Clint Eastwood and has an all-Japanese cast.
One of the best war films of all time, this movie about the invasion of Normany is noted for its realistic portrayal of war, particularly the Allied assault on Omaha Beach.
The true story of the German businessman who saved more than a thousand mostly Polish-Jewish refugees during the Holocaust is the basis of the movie.
There is a large collection of entries about World War II on this website.
The website covers all aspects of World War II, has a discussion forum and a message board, and allows users to search the site by name.
After the Second World War, the world faced a series of social revolutions such as those in China and Cuba, as well as the decolonization of Asia and Africa.
These changes were the result of movements that began before the Second World War and were accelerated by it.
The Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union led to the transformation.
Between 1945 and the early 1960s, nearly every colonial territory gained formal independence as people in Asia and Africa pushed back against centuries of Western expansion.
A revolution in China consolidated Communist rule and initially followed the Soviet model, but then deviated in new directions.
China and the Soviet Union became rivals rather than allies.
The Cold War between the U.S. and U.S.R.
did not involve armed conflict.
Each country supported rival groups in conflicts around the world.
The division between western European countries allied to the United States and eastern European nations that the Soviet Union brought into its zone of influence was imposed by the Cold War.
The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union divided postwar Europe and became a long, tense standoff, which foretold the changes that would take place in the world following the Second World War: the independence of India and Pakistan.
All had their roots in the decades preceding the Second World War.
Each was shaped by the war.
There were disagreements over the political outcome of the war.
Stalin wanted control of eastern Europe to guarantee military security from Germany.
The United States was the only country that had atomic weapons at the end of the war.
Stalin pursued security by occupying eastern Europe and imposing compliant governments that would provide a buffer against western European aggression, just as the U.S. had a monopoly on the atomic bomb.
These countries were considered Soviet satellites because they were modeled on and dictated by the Soviet Union.
President Truman thought these occupations were a campaign for world domination.
Communist movements in Greece and China fed these fears.
In October 1945 Truman issued the Truman Doctrine, which was intended to contain communism to areas already occupied by the Soviet army by providing military and economic support to governments threatened by Communist control.
The American policy was to prevent the spread of Communism.
Truman asked Congress for military aid for Greece and Turkey.
Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed a larger package of aid to help Europe rebuild.
Marshall Plan assistance was refused by Stalin.
The United States was shocked by the support of the Soviet Union for the overthrow of the Czechoslovakian government in 1948.
The Marshall Plan was approved by Congress in April 1948.
After World War II, the American plan was to give economic aid to Europe.
There was a pattern of escalating reactions between the U.S. and Soviet Union.
The U.S. and its allies provided millions of tons of provisions to the West Berliners after Stalin blocked road traffic through the Soviet zone of Germany.
The containment seemed to work after 324 days.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed by the United States in 1949.
Stalin tightened his hold on his satellites under the Warsaw Pact.
Europe was divided into two groups.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949.
Residents of Berlin watch a U.S. Air Force cargo plane land with supplies to support West Berliners.
The Soviet Union and the United States, with their industrial strength and atomic weapons, emerged as the greatest power in the world.
The Soviet Union developed its own atomic weapons in 1949.
The Cold War was a military and political confrontation between the two nations.
Europe was divided by an iron curtain during the Cold War.
The Marshall Plan did not include any of the Communist countries of eastern Europe.
The rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union was defined by an ideological divide.
The United States saw itself as the defender of a free world governed by liberal principles such as free markets, private property, and individual rights.
The Soviet Union defined itself as the defender of the rights of workers and peasants against their exploiters, the rights of colonial peoples against their colonizers, and economic development based on planning and equitable distribution.
The Cold War created opposing paths that the superpowers pressured other countries to follow.
In order to preserve peace, nations were to be involved in international conflicts.
The UN's role in 1945 was more ambitious than that of the League of Nations, as the UN would support decolonization, promote economic development, and expand access to health care, worker protections, environmental protection, and gender equity.
The United Nations Children's Fund provided milk to children in Greece in the aftermath of civil war.
The UN was divided into two bodies, a General Assembly that met annually and included all nations that signed the UN Charter, and a Security Council made up of five regional powers, each of which held veto power over the council's decisions.
Because of U.S. influence over Latin America, British and Soviet leaders wanted France to be the fifth member of the Security Council and not the Brazilian seat.
The United Nations gave China's seat to the People's Republic of China in 1971.
The UN supported decolonization efforts.
Its charter was used as a forum for liberation movements to make claims or negotiate the terms of independence.
The UN provided a platform for opponents of colonialism to condemn the powers that resisted their calls for self-determination.
In addition, UN member nations volunteered military forces to serve around the world as peacekeepers, who have provided a buffer to ease violent disputes and served as observers to ensure that agreements were being met or that abuses were not being committed in conflict areas.
The United Nations brokered Indonesia's demand for independence from the Netherlands, which fought a four-year war to reoccupy the former colony.
The UN deployed peacekeepers in the newly created border between India and Pakistan, and it helped determine the terms under which Britain relinquished control of Palestine and Jordan, as well as the terms for the creation of Israel in 1948.
As new member states joined, the agenda of the United Nations changed.
In 1960, eighteen African nations were seated at the UN, forming part of an "AfroAsian bloc" committed to rapidly completing the decolonization process.
During the Cold War rivalry, the idea of a Third World had particular appeal because it allowed advocates to try to stake out an independent space.
Most Third World countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America were poor and economically underdeveloped, and therefore referred to as "nonindustrial" or "industrializing" nations.
At the end of the Second World War, many areas of the Third World were colonies of European countries.
After the Second World War, the colonial powers were weakened and nationalist movements grew stronger.
There were many forms of the quest for liberation.
Industrialization and development were sought by nations emerging from colonialism.
They sought alliances with other industrializing nations to avoid the neocolonial influences of more powerful nations.
They reacted against assumptions of white supremacy.
The former colonies faced intense pressure to align themselves with either the United States or the Soviet Union, and few could resist the incentives brought to bear.
There are a number of ways in which the two superpowers differ.
In 1955, leaders of twenty-nine recently independent nations in Asia and Africa met in Bandung, Indonesia, to create a framework for political and economic cooperation so they could emerge from colonialism without having to resubordinate their nations.
The principles were outlined by the participants.
Marxists who had come to power in the struggle against Nazi Germany formed a non-aligned nations movement after meeting in Yugoslavia in 1961.
The Economic Commission for Latin America was established by the United Nations in 1948.
Latin America's main intellectual contributions to the twentieth century were a diagnosis of reasons why less industrialized regions of the world lag economically and technologically behind Europe and the United States.
In the midtwentieth century, Latin America formulated a belief that development in some areas of the world locks other nations into under development.
Latin America, Africa, and Asia were trapped in roles as exporters of agricultural and mineral commodities and importers of capital and technology.
The prosperity of Europe and the United States was built on the impoverishment of other regions, an inequality that increased over time as the value of commodities decreased relative to the value of manufactured and technological goods.
The question would be asked many times around the world in the second half of the twentieth century, and it would be answered in many ways.
The experts believed that the American way was always best.
These projects were often rife with negative consequences which led to distrust of U.S. aid.
The United States in the mid-twentieth century held a belief that all countries evolved in a linear progression from traditional to mature.
dependency theory was more appealing to people emerging from colonialism.
Rural poverty pushed millions into cities where good jobs were hard to find.
There were insufficient schools and health care in the countryside.
State planning to induce industrialization and distribute resources more evenly was favored by dependency theorists.
import substitution industrialization is a common tool to do this.
Under ISI policies, countries imposed trade barriers to keep foreign products out and provided subsidies to domestic industries to make the same goods.
Trade barriers are used to keep foreign products out of a country so that domestic industry can emerge and produce the same goods.
Landowners, foreign corporations, and political conservatives objected to land redistribution or nationalization by the governments.
The United States supported many military coups.
The redistribution of land held by large U.S. companies was pursued by a democratically elected government.
The U.S. government staged a coup in 1954.
Cold War views were hardened by the experience in Guatemala.
The United States expanded its containment doctrine to Latin America because of the events.
Latin American reformers were told that gradual change would be blocked by the U.S. and that more radical paths were needed.
An Argentine medical student was volunteering at the time of the coup.
Private property and wage labor were forms of exploitation that could be overthrown by free workers volunteering their labor to help liberate others.
There are ideas of social reform and liberation within Catholicism.
The movement emerged in Latin America as a result of reforms of the Catholic Church, which called on clergy to engage with the contemporary world, which was characterized by poverty and exclusion.
dependency theory was invoked by the Latin American Council of Bishops as it called on clergy to work toward social justice, including land redistribution, the recognition of peasants' and labor unions, and condemnation of economic dependency.
In Latin America in the 1960s, there was a movement within the Catholic Church to support the poor in situations of exploitation.
Drawing on dependency theory and sometimes verging on revolutionary Marxism, priests attracted to liberation theology challenged governments, fought against landowners and business owners they saw as oppressors, and formed community organizations, or ecclesiastical base communities, where the residents of poor neighborhoods could gather to discuss their problems and come up Popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI suppressed liberation theology after the 1970s.
The naming of a pope from Latin America, Francis, in 2013 was greeted by advocates of liberation theology as a return to the focus on fighting poverty and social exclusion within the Catholic Church.
The impact of liberation theology in Latin America can be seen in this 1986 meeting.
The road map for countries to follow as they evolved from "traditional" to "mature" states was created by the American economist.
Economic development in the United States and Europe made the rest of the world dependent on them.
The traditional society, the preconditions for take-off, the take-off, the drive to maturity, and the age of high mass-consumption are all included in the economic dimensions of all societies.
The structure of a traditional society is based on pre-Newtonian science and technology and on pre-Newtonian attitudes towards the physical world.
When men came to believe that the external world was subject to a few knowable laws,Newton was used as a symbol.
In the life of modern societies, there is a great Watershed.
The forces making for economic progress, which yielded limited bursts and enclaves of modern activity, came to dominate the society.
After take-off there is a long interval of sustained if changing progress as the economy continues to grow.
Goods formerly imported are produced at home, new import requirements are developed, and new export commodities match them, as the economy finds its place in the international economy.
A world-wide economic system has been created because of the rapid spread of new production methods from a small number of centers.
The impact of the technical processes and the international division of labor commanded by a small number of societies during the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century made under development a creature of development.
These societies and the underdeveloped areas are dependent on each other.
Under development can't be studied as a phase since certain factors would have to come into play at the same time.
Since the underdeveloped economies are dependent on their developed counterparts, they cannot retrace the experiences of the latter.
Development and under development should be considered in the same way as the creation and spread of modern technology.
Many intellectuals who came of age during and after the struggle for political emancipation embraced a vision of solidarity among peoples who are oppressing them.
Some argued that genuine freedom required a rejection of Western values and a break with the former colonial powers.
The colonized mass mock colonial values in a psychic purge.
After national liberation, the people are called upon to fight against poverty, illiteracy, and under development.
They say the struggle goes on.
We are not fed by the moral reparation of national independence.
Our wealth is also related to the wealth of the imperial countries.
Europe is the creation of the Third World.
The wealth which smothers her is that which was taken from the underdeveloped peoples.
Some writers looked beyond the industrialized powers as countries gained independence.
They were antiimperialist but also activists and cultural nationalists who celebrated the histories and cultures of their peoples.
Many did not hesitate to criticize their own leaders.
Chinua Achebe wanted to restore his people's self-confidence by interpreting the past.
The "writer in a new nation" had to embrace the "fundamental theme" that Africans had their own culture before the Europeans came and that it was the duty of writers to help Africans recover their past.
The white man is very smart.
He came quietly with his religion.
He was allowed to stay because we were amused by his foolishness.
Our clan can no longer act like one after he won our brothers.
The post independence disillusionment of many writers and intellectuals was portrayed in later novels by Achebe.
He developed a critique of rulers who were corrupted by Western luxury.
V. S. Naipaul, who was born in Trinidad in 1932, castigated governments in the developing countries for corruption, incompetence, and self-deception.
One of the recurring themes of Naipaul is the loneliness and homelessness of people who have left their homes.
The postwar challenge of liberation was not simply political and economic, but also cultural and spiritual.
The middle decades of the twentieth century saw a broad awakening of the voices of people who had been marginalized.
The three South Asian countries created through independence from Britain and subsequent partition, India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, reflected the dominant themes of cultural and economic nationalism that characterized the end of colonialism, but ethnic and religious rivalries greatly complicated their renewal and development.
Cold War pressures from the United States and the Soviet Union, as well as the tension between secular modernization and Islam, made it difficult for the nationalists who guided the formation of modern states in the Arab world.
The state of Israel was founded by Jewish nationalists after the Second World War.
The rights and claims of the Palestinians who were displaced by the creation of Israel came into conflict with the claim to a homeland made by the Zionists.
World War II accelerated the drive toward Indian independence begun by Mohandas Gandhi.
Gandhi called on the British to "quit India" in 1942.
He and the other leaders of the Indian National Congress Party were arrested and jailed for much of the war.
India's support for Britain during the war was substantial but not always enthusiastic.
The Congress Party's prime rival was able to increase its influence.
The leader of the Congress Party was a lawyer named Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Jinnah was worried that India's Hindu majority would rule at the expense of Muslims.
The political party founded in 1906 advocated for a separate Muslim homeland after independence.
The Hindus and Muslims have different religions.
They don't marry, they don't dine together, and they are both based on conflicting ideas.
Gandhi disagreed with Jinnah's two-nation theory that yoked together two nations under a single State, one as a numerical minority and the other as majority, would lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be built up for the government of such a State.
Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim nationalists led to the deaths of many people in 1946.
When it became clear that Jinnah and the Muslim League would accept nothing less than an independent state of Pakistan, the British government brokered a partition that created a predominantly Hindu nation and a predominantly Muslim nation.
There were large Hindu and Muslim minorities in Kashmir, the Punjab, and Bengal.
The result of partition throughout the world in the twentieth century was a forced exchange of populations and greater homogeneity on both sides of the border.
Mass expulsions and violence followed independence.
An estimated 5 million people became refugees after the slaughter of a hundred thousand Hindus and Muslims.
In reference to independence, Gandhi said, "I see nothing but rivers of blood."
Gandhi was killed by a Hindu in the aftermath of riots in January 1948, which he saw as Gandhi's appeasement of Muslims.
Relations between India and Pakistan were tense after independence.
The area of Kashmir, a strategically important northwestern border state with a Muslim majority annexed by India, was the site of fighting from 1949 to 1999 as tensions continued.
Jawaharlal Nehru and the Indian National Congress Party ruled for a generation and introduced major social reforms.
Hindu women gained legal equality, including the right to vote, to seek divorce, and to marry outside their castes.
The untouchable caste was abolished by the constitution.
Rural villages, where 85% of the people lived, were the places where attitudes toward women and untouchables evolved slowly.
The Congress Party pursued state-driven economic development, but population growth consumed much of the increased output of economic expansion.
The partition of India and Pakistan made poverty worse.
The Congress Party did not align itself with either the United States or the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
India became one of the leading voices in the movement.
Pakistan was divided at independence into eastern and western provinces, which were separated by more than a thousand miles of Indian territory, as well as by language, ethnic background, and social custom.
After Jinnah's death, the central government neglected the Bengalis of East Pakistan, who constituted a majority of Pakistan's population as a whole.
The Bengalis won their independence in 1971 after a civil war.
The daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru became the prime minister of India in 1966.
She is seated between the presidents of Yugoslavia and Egypt at a 1966 meeting of the Non-Aligned Nations movement.
New Arab states emerged from colonial rule in the postwar period.
The region had been ruled by the Ottoman Empire for hundreds of years.
The former Ottoman territories were claimed by France and Britain after the First World War.
Egypt and Algeria were both claimed by Britain and France.
New nations emerging from colonial rule in the Middle East embraced a modernizing, secular, and nationalist project of nation building aimed at economic development, a strong military, and Pan-Arab unity.
A modernizing, secular, and nationalist project of nation building in the Middle East aimed at economic development and the development of a strong military.
It removed religious restrictions on women's education, occupations, public activities, and fashions.
Although senior posts in government, the professions, and business were still dominated by men, the openness of education and access to professions enjoyed by urban, typically affluent women symbolized an embrace of Western modernity.
In 1952 army officers overthrew Egypt's monarchy and expelled the British military force from the country.
The nationalist regime built by the movement's leader was intended to eradicate the vestiges of colonialism.
Applying the principles of Arab socialism, Nasser secularized Egyptian society, created an extensive social welfare network, redistributed rural lands, and promoted industrialization.
The National Charter called for the nationalization of transportation, mining, dams, banks, utilities, insurance, and heavy industry.
estates were broken up in the countryside due to the limited size of landholdings.
When the revolution began, we wanted to end exploitation.
Our struggle to put capital at the service of man, and to put land at the service of man, instead of leaving man at the service of the feudalist who owns the land.
When the army took control of the canal, it was a symbolic step towards national sovereignty.
British, French, and Israeli forces invaded the canal.
The Soviet Union supported Egypt.
The United States brokered a cease-fire that allowed Egypt to take control of the canal.
The Aswan Dam on the Nile River was one of the main economic accomplishments of Nasser, as it allowed southern Egypt to control flooding and increase agricultural production.
The funding and technical expertise for the dam was negotiated by Nasser with both the United States and the Soviet Union.
The Aswan Dam and the Suez crisis were examples of how a nationalist leader could play against each other.
Military officers in other countries followed in the footsteps of Nasser.
The Pan-Arab socialist Ba'ath Party was formed in Syria and Iraq.
Egypt was a model for the development of a single-party state that implemented nationalist and development ambitions.
The United Arab Republic was formed after Syria and Egypt merged.
Ba'ath Party rule in Iraq ended when the U.S. military invaded in 2003 after Saddam Hussein was deposed.
Before the Second World War, Arab nationalists were united in their opposition to the colonial powers and Jewish migration to Palestine.
The United Nations passed a plan to partition Palestine into two separate states, one for Arabs and one for Jews.
The partition of Palestine was rejected by both the Jews and Arabs.
There was a civil war in Palestine by early 1948.
The Jews proclaimed the state of Israel after the British mandate ended.
The new state was attacked by Arab countries, but Israeli forces drove the invaders off.
Nine hundred thousand Palestinian refugees fled or were expelled from Palestine.
The war left an enormous legacy of Arab bitterness towards Israel and its political allies, Great Britain and the United States.
A loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and united in the goal of establishing a Palestinian state was created in 1964.
Nationalist leaders in Egypt and Syria supported each other through opposition to Israel and threats to crush it.
The tension erupted into war.
On June 1, 1967, when Egyptian and Syrian armies massed on Israel's borders, the Israeli government went to war, launching air strikes that destroyed most of the Egyptian, Syrian, and Jordanian air forces.
Israeli armies took control of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gaza Strip from Egyptian, Syrian, Jordanian, and Palestinian forces over the course of five days.
The Six-Day War of 1967, also known as the Arab-Israeli War, proved that Israel was the pre-eminent military force in the region.
Israel began to build large Jewish settlements in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank after the war.
On November 22, 1967, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 242, which contained a "land for peace" formula by which Israel was called upon to withdraw from the occupied territories, and in return the Arab states were to withdraw all claims to Israeli territory, cease hostilities, and recognize the sovereignty of the There was tension between the territorial claims.
The Second World War ended in Asia, but other conflicts continued, including a renewed civil war in China and a renewed struggle for independence in European colonies.
The People's Republic of China was established in 1949.
Japan's reconstruction was shaped by the victory of the Communists in China.
Fear of communism in the U.S. led to conflicts in Korea and Vietnam, increasing the stakes in the decolonization struggle across East and Southeast Asia.
Communists and Nationalists rushed to seize evacuated territory after Japan surrendered to the Allies.
The Communists and Nationalists had fought each other before the Second World War, but had stopped fighting to resist the Japanese.
The Nationalists and Communists resumed their fight after the war ended.
The better-led, more determined Communists destroyed the Nationalist forces by 1948.
The Nationalist leader Jiang Jieshi and 2 million mainland Chinese fled to Taiwan in 1949 in order to establish the People's Republic of China.
Britain, France, the Netherlands, Japan, Australia, and the United States gained independence after the Second World War.
In Vietnam and Indonesia, independence came from armed struggles against colonizers who were unwilling to leave.