She and her sister began linking their efforts to free slaves with their desire to free women from male domination.
Sarah Grimke said something.
At the American Anti- Slavery Society's annual meeting in 1840, the Garrisonians convinced a majority of delegates that women should be included in the organization.
The American and Foreign Anti- Slavery Society was formed by the Tappans and their supporters.
The American Anti- Slavery Society had grown skeptical that the "moral suasion" promoted by Garrison would ever lead to abolition.
They decided that political action was the best way to achieve their goal.
The Liberty party was formed in order to get a president who would restrict the spread of slavery.
The moral and religious crusade became a political movement.
The Liberty party's nominee was a former slaveholder who became an anti-slavery activist.
Slavery in the western territories and the District of Columbia should be banned according to the platform.
The Liberty party did not find many supporters.
In the 1840 election, only 7,000 votes were cast.
The Thirteenth Amendment ended slavery in 1865.
Although many whites worked to end slavery, most of them, unlike William Lloyd Garrison, still believed that blacks were inferior and that free blacks should take a back seat in the movement.
The struggle against slavery was transformed into a fight against racial discrimination with the help of free African Americans.
Free blacks were not allowed in public places.
The compelling testimonies provided by former slaves gave rise to much of the energy and appeal of the abolitionist movement.
Brown escaped from his owner on the Ohio River when he was just twenty years old.
An Ohio quasar named Wel s Brown provided shelter to the runaway and adopted the man's name while forging a new identity as a free man.
He was a dockworker in Cleveland.
He married, had three children, and helped slaves cross the border into Canada.
He was hired as a traveling lecturer by the Massachusetts Anti- Slavery Society.
Brown called for an end to slavery and equality for both blacks and women.
The spokesman for abolitionism was Frederick Douglass.
After escaping from Maryland, he went to Massachusetts to speak at anti- slavery meetings in black churches.
He was sent across New England and west to Ohio and Indiana by the Massachusetts Anti- Slavery Society.
Douglass was the best known man of color in America.
In 1842, he told a Massachusetts group that he was a thief and a robber.
After two years, he had enough money to purchase his freedom.
The newspaper was named after the star that runaway slaves used to guide them.
African American women were involved in the movement.
The parents of Sojourner Truth were enslaved in New York in 1797.
She was given the name Isabel a "Bel Hardenbergh" but changed her mind in 1843 after a conversation with God, who told her to preach the truth against slavery.
Truth spoke of the evils of the "peculiar institution" as well as the inequality of women when she was a slave.
Both former slaves, Douglass and Truth, were captivating orators.
The testimony of women brought to reformist causes, which was tapped by Sojourner Truth.
Thousands of slaves from the south fled North in the 18th and 19th century.
At night, runaways would make their way from one safe house to the next.
Freeborn blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, and Native Americans were some of the people who helped the runaways.
There were a lot of ways in which freys, Unitarians, Presbyterians, Methodists, and Baptists participated.
In Philadelphia, a free black who was a clerk at the society for the abolition of slavery sheltered runaway slaves as they made their way to Canada.
He was a conductor for the Underground Railroad for fourteen years and helped 800 slaves make their way to freedom.
Some runaway slaves returned to the South to organize more escapes.
The most celebrated member of the Underground Railroad was born a slave on Maryland's Eastern Shore in 1820 but escaped to Philadelphia in 1849.
During the Civil War, Tubman worked as a northern spy and scout, leading Union gunboats in the Carolinas to liberate hundreds of Confederate slaves.
Slaveowners in Maryland placed a $40,000 bounty on her head because they wanted her dead or alive.
Racist attitudes remained widespread among the working poor despite the growing efforts of anti- slavery orga nizations.
Anti- slavery speakers were confronted by hostile white crowds who disliked blacks.
The editor of an anti-slavery newspaper was killed by a mob in Illinois in 1836, making him a martyr to the causes of abolition and freedom of the press.
Lovejoy was a Presbyterian minister in New England.
He moved to Missouri to focus on the "destruction of slavery" after receiving a "sign by God".
When a pro-slavery mob destroyed his printing office, he moved across the Mississippi River to a warehouse in Illinois where he tried to start an anti- slavery society.
His printing press was destroyed twice by mobs.
Lovejoy and his supporters took up defensive positions when a new press arrived.
The building was shot at on November 7, 1837.
One of Lovejoy's allies shot and killed a rioter.
The mob set the warehouse on fire.
Lovejoy was killed by a shotgun blast.
Abraham Lincoln felt those shockwaves when he was young.
The sin of slavery could only be removed by violence.
The appeal of abolitionism and the broader reform impulse was embodied in the colorful life of Abbie Kelley.
She became a Gra hamite after giving up coffee, alcohol, meat, and tea in favor of vegetables and Graham crackers.
She joined the Female Anti- Slavery Society after attending a lecture by William Lloyd Garrison.
She helped form a network of newspapers in New England and the Midwest.
Kelley was a compelling speaker, always dressed in gray, as she told the stories of enslaved women who were sexually abused by their owners.
Two days before the Pennsylvania Hal was torched, she gave a speech against slavery in Philadelphia.
Frederick Douglass wrote to Kelley thanking her for her bravery in defense of Woman and the Slave.
Kelley was the first woman elected as an officer in the American Anti- Slavery Society.
Many men were angry.
Kelley was described as being one of those women with masculine minds and aggressive tendencies.
"Abby" Kelley married Stephen Foster in 1845.
They named the land "Liberty Farm" because they hosted fugitive slaves there.
While still a pas sionate abolitionist, Abby began to champion women's rights and temperance.
She supported the first national women's rights con vention.
Her efforts did not go unrecognized.
People threw eggs and stones at her while she was speaking on stage.
She was praised for her leadership of the reform movements.
She was called the "most persevering, most self- sacrificing, most energetic, most meritorious" by William Lloyd Garrison.
She earned the right to free speech.
The growing strength and visibility of the abolitionist movement, coupled with the profitability of cotton, prompted Southerners to launch an aggressive defense of slavery.
In the 1830s and after, pro-slavery leaders worked out an elaborate rationale for the benefits of slavery.
Their favorite weapon was the Bible.
The arguments became bolder.
South Carolina's John C. Calhoun told the Senate that slavery was a good thing.
The principle of white racial supremacy would be compromised if slavery were abolished.
If freed, blacks would be a danger to themselves and to others because they were too shiftless.
White workers were afraid of competition for jobs if slaves were freed.
The debate over slavery drove a wedge between the north and south.
A large number of Americans decided that southern slavery should not be allowed to expand into the western territories.
In the Civil War, their crusade would reach a fiery climax.
The more democratic sects, such as Baptists and Methodists, which promoted the idea of free will salvation, gained huge numbers of converts, including women and people of color.
Romanticism was embraced by a group of New England poets, philosophers, writers, ministers, and reformers.
They wanted to encourage more independent thought and reflection.
The rise of an urban middle class gave women more time to devote to societal concerns.
Many of the social reformers were women.
Some abolitionists called for full social and political equality among the races, even though they disagreed over tactics.
The abolitionist efforts in the North caused fear and resentment among southern whites.
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Americans were optimistic about the future during the first half of the 19th century.
New roads, canals, and railroads overcame the barrier of distance as the nation's population and boundaries continued to grow.
Tensions with Great Britain lessened as the economy grew.
The United States expanded from Texas west to California and the Pacific Northwest by the end of the 1840s.
The surge of territorial expansion was a mixed blessing.
The nation's flashpoint issue was how to deal with slavery in the new western territories acquired from Mexico.
The fundamental issue of slavery wasglossed over by a series of political promises, but activists opposed efforts to extend slavery into the West, and an emerging generation of politicians proved less willing to compromise.
Abraham Lincoln predicted that the nation could not survive half- slave and half- free.
In a last-ditch effort to preserve the institution of slavery, eleven southern states broke away from the Union and created a separate Confederate nation, sparking a civil war to restore the Union.
More than 750,000 soldiers and sailors would die in the war, and no one realized how costly it would be.
No one imagined how much the war's effects would be.
America's transformation into a modern urban- industrial superpower was accelerated by the North's victory in 1865.
Legislation to promote indus trial and commercial development and western expansion was passed by Congress.
The status of freed African Ameri cans remained precarious during the Reconstruction era despite the end of slavery.
Few former slaves had property, homes, education or training after they were freed.
The Fourteenth Amendment guaranteed the civil rights of African Americans and the Fifteenth Amendment guaranteed that black men could vote, but southern officials often ignored the new laws.
The defeated Southerners were bitter.
Confederate leaders continued to have considerable authority even after they lost their voting rights.
When the last federal troops were removed from the occupied South in 1877, the former Confederates declared themselves "redeemed" from the "stain" of northern military occupation.
By the end of the 19th century, most of the former Confederacy had developed a system of discrimination against blacks.
The transcontinental trek was often brutal and deadly, but German American painter Albert Bierstadt captures the majestic sights of the frontier.
In the first half of the 19th century, most white Americans viewed the westward march of settlement as a source of hope and energy.
"Americans go west ward as into the future, with a spirit of enterprise and adventure, and hope of freedom," said Henry David Thoreau.
The lands over the Allegheny Mountains that became Ohio and Kentucky, the farmlands of the Old Southwest, the fertile prairies of the Pacific coast, and the states of California, Ore were all imagined as part of the West.
Waves of people moved west after the 1840s.
Even if it meant displacing Indians in the process, people persevered to fulfill their "manifest destiny" and subdue the entire continent.
4.3 million people traveled across the Mississippi River and across the Great Plains to the Pacific coast by 1860.
The pioneers moved West for economic reasons.
trappers, farmers, miners, merchants, clerks, hunters, ranchers, teachers, household servants, and prostitutes headed West to seek their fortunes.
A Texas woman said that making money was their main object.
Others converted to Christianity.
The West was not empty.
Others were there before the migration.
The Native American and Hispanic inhabitants of the region were swept aside as U.S. presidents encouraged the nation's continental expansion.
Many Southerners viewed the new territories as a source of cheap land that could be used to grow cotton.
The governments of new western territories and states were wanted by the southerners.
I would spread the blessings of slavery.
The addition of western lands made it a point of debate.
The provision in the U.S. Constitution that counted slaves in determining the number of congressional seats for each state gave Southerners disproportionate political power.
Most of the first sixteen presidents were from the South, and Southerners held most of the leadership positions in Congress.
The influence of the south in Congress waned as the Midwest and Northeast grew.
The South was worried that they would soon be outnumbered in a Congress that would vote to eliminate slavery.
The name of the nation's aggressive expansion was given by the New York newspaper editor in 1845.
The United States had a God given mission to extend its Christian republic and capitalist civilization from the Atlantic to the Pacific.
The opportunity to bring liberty and prosperity to native peoples was taken for granted by American ideals and institutions.
Territorial growth and the expansion of slavery were offered a moral justi fication by this notion of manifest.
manifest destiny was a cluster of flimsy rationalizations and racist attitudes justifying the conquest of weaker peoples.
Whites from the Upper South and the Midwest were the majority of western pioneers.
Discuss the experience of a typical settler on the trails.
Gold was discovered in California in 1848, which made it an attractive destination.
Most went overland.
350,000 men, women, and children trekked to California or Oregon in the 19th century, while many others settled in Colorado, Texas, and Arkansas.
Thousands of people made the six- month journey each year, but many died along the way due to hunger, disease, or violence.
There were 30,000 pio neers along the Oregon Trail in 1849 because of the lure of gold in California.
By 1850, the peak year along the trail, the annual count had risen to over 50,000.
More than 300,000 Native Americans lived west of the Mississippi River when the great migration began.
They represented more than 200 nations, each with its own language, religion, cultural practices, and system of governance.
Some were mainly farmers while others were hunters.
The Indians' survival was at risk due to the influx of white settlers and hunters.
Federal officials were unable to force Indian leaders to sell their lands.
After the discovery of gold in California, a wave of white expansion flowed all the way to the west coast.
George Catlin painted a picture of a hunter and a buffalo.
American settlers encountered Spanish-speaking peoples as they traveled across Indian lands.
Whites were prejudiced towards Hispanics just as much as they were towards Indians and African Americans.
The common bias among white expansionists is that they don't want the people of Mexico, either as citizens or as subjects.
In the northernmost provinces of Mexico, Spanish colonization efforts were less successful in Arizona and Texas than in New Mexico and Florida.
Spanish attempts to establish Catholic mis sions were defeated by the Apaches in Arizona and the Comanches in Texas.
In New Mexico, the Hispanic population exceeded 20,000 by 1790.
In 1807, French forces led by Napoleon invaded Spain and killed the king, causing confusion throughout Spain's colonial possessions in the Western Hemisphere.
The poorly orga nized uprising failed to convince Indians and Hispanics to revolt against Spanish rule in Mexico.
Mexican creoles tried to liberate themselves again in 1820.
Mexico became an independent republic after the last Spanish officials withdrew.
It struggled to develop an effective economy.
The painting depicts a white man sailing down the river with his Native American son, not an uncommon sight in western America.
The Santa Fe Trail was used by thousands of Americans to travel from Missouri to New Mexico.
The trek wasn't for the faint hearted.
In 1847 alone, marauding Indians killed forty- seven Americans, destroyed 330 wagons, and stole 6,500 horses, cattle, and oxen.
The Far Northwest consisted of Nebraska, Washington, and Oregon.
The Canadian province of British Columbia was included in the Oregon Country.
Both Great Britain and the United States claimed the area.
By the Convention of 1818, the two nations agreed to "joint occupation" of the Oregon Country.
The fur trade inspired a group of men to live in the wilderness.
The first American to enter California from the east was the fur trapper Jedediah Smith, who left the Great Salt Lake in Utah and crossed the Mojave Desert.
After the federal government promised 160 acres of free land to anyone who worked on the property for four years, the nation swept.
Some pioneers wanted to escape debts, dull lives or bad marriages.
Tens of thousands moved West.
Many never made it to Oregon.
In 1841 and 1842, the first wagon trains made the long trip across half the continent, and in 1843 the movement became a mass migration.
The pioneers walked 2,000 miles.
After the valley in Pennsylvania where they were first built, all their food and worldly goods were packed in wagons.
Teams of four mules or oxen pulled the sturdy, canvas- covered wagons, whose ends were higher than the sides to keep cargo from falling out when traveling up mountain ridges.
The wagons could be floated across streams and rivers if the wheels were wide enough.
wagon trains were like mobile commu nities according to one pioneer.
After breakfast was over, the men rounded up the cattle, took down the tents, and yoked the oxen to the wagons, as the women were supposed to rise at daylight.
They found that Oregon required backbreaking work to create self sustaining homesteads.
Women worked as hard as men.
Sarah said she is a very old woman.
The wagon trains followed the Oregon Trail west from Independence, Missouri, along the winding North Platte River into what is now Wyoming, through South Pass to Fort Bridger, then down the Snake River through Idaho to the Columbia River.
They traveled through the mountains to get to the Wil amette Valley.
Migrants tore through Native American lands as they traveled along the Oregon Trail.
Nations like the Arapaho were forced to split into northern and southern branches after Buffalo disappeared.
When negotiating treaties with the Native Americans, the federal government insisted that they be relocated far from the Oregon Trail, which eventually led to the Union Pacific Railroad.
The sunburned settlers bumped and jostled their way across rugged trails, mountains, and plains blackened by vast herds of buffaloes.
Many Indians served as guides, advisers, or traders on the Oregon Trail.
As the number of pioneers grew, disputes with Indians over land and water increased, but never to the degree depicted in novels, films, and television shows.
The long journey west, usually five to six months, was an exodus of hardship during the hot summers and cold winters.
The wagons broke down, oxen died, and diseases took their tol.
Women on the Overland Trails cooked and washed their children and gathered buffalo dung to use as fuel as their wagons crossed the treeless plains.
There were many deaths due to contaminated water and food.
There were one grave every eighty yards along the trail.
The same division of labor was used back East.
Men tended the horses and cattle, while women cooked, washed, sewed, and monitored the children.
The demands of the western trails made the distinctions disappear.
Women were gathering buffalo dung for fuel, driving wagons, helping to build makeshift bridges, pitch ing tents, and participating in other "unladylike" tasks.
Social ten sions were provoked by the hard labor of the trail.
In the West, divorces soared.
Many migrants were devastated by the struggle to establish new lives.
The Malick family left Illinois in the 19th century to start a farm in Oregon.
The father, George Malick, and three of the older children died soon afterwards.
Malick wrote a letter to her relatives in Illinois.
California had a pow erful magnet.
Spain sent a naval expedition to settle the region in 1769 because they were worried about Russian seal traders moving south along the Pacific coast from Alaska.
The Franciscan friars established a Catholic mission in San Diego.
The Franciscans built twenty northward missions in the next fifty years, taking a day's journey from San Diego to San Fran cisco.
The property was divided among the Indians.
The missions were larger and more influential in California.
Most of the Native Americans living along the California coast were controlled by Spanish Catholic missionaries by the 19th century.
Indians werelured into coastal missions by the friars with gifts or religious rituals.
Once inside the missions, the Indians were stripped of their cultural heritage and became Catholics.
The California Catholic missions were fortresses, fortresses, schools, shops, farms, and outposts of Spanish rule.
Most of the labor was provided by Indians.
The community was summoned to prayer by the ringing of a bel at dawn.
Work did not end until an hour before sunset.
The majority of Indian men worked in the fields.
Everyone was expected to help in the fields during the harvest season.
Indian laborers got clothing, food, housing, and religious instruction instead of wages.