33 -- Part 2: The Global South: Latin America and Africa 1945 to the Present
Brazil's economy boomed after World War II because of modernization.
Juscelino Kubitschek was the president of economic nationalism.
Brazil and other Latin American countries seemed to have less violent, more democratic politics by the late 1950s as a result of economic and social progress.
Conservative leaders and military offi cers across Latin America took control of governments in order to block any further spread of communism after the Communist Cuban Revolution.
Joao Goulart became Brazil's president in 1961.
A number of social and economic reforms were introduced by Goulart.
The new Castro regime in Cuba established close ties with Goulart, who tried to promote a nuclear-free Latin America.
The military drove Goulart from office in 1964 and installed a series of right-wing general-presidents.
The generals of the military dictatorships oversaw political-economic reforms that promoted an economic miracle in Brazil.
In 1985 Bra zilians elected the first civilian government in twenty years after a slow return to democracy.
Fernando Cardoso was elected in the first decade of civilian rule.
A string of peaceful, democratic transitions of power began in 1994.
Brazil's first woman president, Dilma Rousseff, was elected in October 2010.
Cuba was an American protectorate until the 1930s, when a series of rulers with socialist and Communist leanings seized and lost power.
In March 1952 Fulgencio Batista staged a coup with American support and instituted a repressive authoritarian regime that favored wealthy Cubans and multinational corporations.
Cuba was one of the most prosperous countries in Latin America through the 1950s.
The nist revolution began in 1953.
Castro's second in command, the Argen, overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista on January 1, 1959.
Cuban rebels turned back a government offensive in August of 1958.
On January 1, 1959 after Castro's forces won two major battles, he fled the country to the Dominican Republic.
Castro and his men were greeted by a large group of supporters on their march to the capital.
Cuban relations with the Eisenhower administration deteriorated rapidly as middle-class Cubans fled to Miami.
Kennedy abandoned the exiles as soon as they landed at the Bay of Pigs in southern Cuba, after trying to topple Castro.
Castro used oppressive policies to silence opposition after defeating the Bay of Pigs forces.
Castro's dictatorship was character ized by a cult of personality and he played a central role in the exportation of Communist revolutions throughout Latin America.
The Cuban missile crisis in 1962 was caused by Castro's close ties with the Soviet Union and resulted in a confrontation between the United States and the U.S.S.R. over the placement of Soviet nuclear missiles in Cuba.
The United States placed a complete commercial and diplomatic embargo on Cuba in 1963.
Human rights deteriorated under Castro's regime.
Cuban life was closely monitored and any perceived opposition to the government was quickly silenced.
The standard of living went down due to the revolution.
Cuba was dependent on the Soviet Union for a number of things.
Although statistics provided by the Cuban government are thought to be inflated, observers agree that Castro's government has raised the educational level of its citizens, provided them with some of the best health care in Latin America, and organized cultural and arts programs that enjoy mas sive.
Cuba lost 80 percent of its import and export trade according to foreign economists.
Cuba was plunged into an eco nomic depression because of the loss of oil imports from the Soviet Union.
As agricultural production stopped, famine spread.
Cuban leaders were forced to implement a number of free-market reforms.
Foreign investment and tourism were promoted.
The new measures took effect in 1999.
It had reached an estimated $114 bil ion by the year 2010.
More than one-third of Cuba's population lives in poverty.
Cuba's leader was taken by his brother in 1931.
Many restrictions were removed when he introduced a number of economic and political measures.
Castro wants to improve relations with the United States.
In 2009, Barack Obama relaxed the travel ban in order to allow Cuban Americans to travel to Cuba.
The decades-long embargo was extended by Obama in 2010 and 2011.
It will be in effect until September 2012
After Castro's seizure of power in Cuba in 1961, there was a growing conflict between the left and the right, but at the cost of imposing a new kind of conservative authoritarianism.
In the late 1970s, Costa Rica, Venezuela, Colombia, and Mexico retained some measure of democratic government.
In Argentina and Chile, military dictatorships took control of the country.
Venezuela went through a period of military rule, democracy and socialism.