ChAPTER 28 -- Part 5: The Emergence of Industrial Society
After months of negotiation and street battles, the revolutionaries agreed on a liberal constitution that would have established a constitutional monarchy.
Friedrich believed that he had a divine right to rule.
The revolutionary era in western Europe ended after the failure of the revolutions of 1848.
Revolution was too risky for liberals and working-class leaders because of failure.
The traditional cause of revolution in Western history was food crises.
Famines of this type did not occur in the West because of the bad harvests in 1846 and 1847.
Better riot control police were installed by many governments.
By 1850, the industrial class structure had become dominant.
The rise of business had eroded the economic domi nance of the aristocracy.
The social structure came to rest less on privilege and birth and more on money with industrialization.
Middle-class property owners and workers were at odds by 1850.
The alliances that produced the revolutions were no longer around.
The industri century was spurred by railroads and canals.
The first time in human history that more than a minority of a population lived in cities was when several countries, starting with Britain, passed the 50 percent mark.
The pressing problems growth had created began to be taken care of by the city governments.
For the first time in urban history, death rates fell below birth rates.
Parks, museums, effective regulation of food and housing facilities, and more efficient police forces all added to the safety and cultural amenities of urban life.
The stabilization of crime rates in several industrial areas is a sign of more effective social control but also of a more disciplined population.
By the mid-19th century, industrialization had spread across europe, aided by the development of railroad links and canals that brought resources to the new factories and transported their finished goods to world markets.
In the decades after 1850, industrialization accelerated in western Europe and the United States in a number of ways.
The Bessemer process, which automatically mixed alloys with molten iron, greatly increased the produc tion of steel.
The expansion of oil production began with the addition of new sources of power to steam.
The United States and Germany formed a new chemicals industry.
New machines expanded per worker productivity, ranging from larger mechanical looms to automatic power-drilling equipment that allowed mass production of machine parts.
New methods of work discipline, often devised by industrial psychologists, led to greater specialization and a faster pace; these changes, soon after 1900, would generate the assembly line system.
The growth of sales clerks and secretaries was spurred by the changes because fewer workers were needed for higher outputs.
New strains were caused by the second industrial revolution.
It causes higher levels of labor unrest.
People began adjusting to industrial life in other ways.
Family life was affected by industrialization.
Western society began a demographic transition to a new system that promoted stable population levels through a combination of low birth rates and low death rates.
The infant death rate in the West dropped from 20 to 30 percent between 1890 and 1920.
Children are seen as a source of emotional satisfaction and parental responsibility, not as workers contributing to a family economy.
Women's special family duties gained ground as the Document feature shows.
Material conditions improved after 1850.
By 1900, most of the Western population enjoyed conditions above the poverty line.
People could afford a few things, such as newspapers and family outings, and their diet and housing improved.
The decades from 1880 to 1920 saw a real revolution in children's health, thanks in part to better hygiene during childbirth and better parental care.
A French scientist fell from 5 percent to zero.
Women outlive men by a noticeable margin.
Between 1860 and 1873, the number of corporations in western Europe doubled.
The rise of corporations, drawing on stockholder investment funds, with new laws protecting individual investors, was a major change in business and organizational life.
Industrial workers from the United States to Germany were involved in important labor movements by the 1890s.
The massed power of workers was stressed by the new trade union movement.
Workers sprang up amid detested work conditions and political oppression.
Many workers bargained for better pay and shorter hours.