State politics did not provide remedies because the Indian reservations were separate legal entities from the federal government.
Congress has been largely responsible for denying the rights of Native Americans, so it was not a likely source of support for their expansion.
Many important economic interests with influence in Congress have had a lot at stake in getting their hands on Indian-held resources.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs was found guilty of failing to safeguard Indian interests in 1977.
The courts were not interested in extending rights to Native Americans.
The Supreme Court has found compelling state interests to be more important than Indian claims to religious freedom.
In 1988, the Court ruled that the Forest Service could allow roads and timber cutting in national forests that had been used by Native American drug counselors who were dismissed for using peyote.
The National Congress of American Indians was founded in 1944 and the American Indian Movement was founded in 1968.
The 1969 takeover of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay was one of the dramatic demonstrations staged by AIM.
Native Americans march on Washington, D.C. to protest the construction of the Dakota Access Pipeline near the Standing Rock Indian Reservation in North Dakota.
The protesters say the construction threatens their water and sacredgrounds.
For all the militant activism of the 1960s and 1970s, Native Americans have not been able to change the centuries of dominance by white people.
They earn less than African Americans on average, and their living conditions are often poor.
In 2016 26.2 percent of American Indians lived in poverty, compared to 14.0 percent of the total U.S. population.
Some 70 percent are unemployed, less than 10 percent have graduated from high school, and life expectancy is less than the national average, which approaches eighty years.
Money is pouring into reservations that have casinos that are close to Las Vegas.
In 2016 Indian gambling casinos brought in more than $30 billion, more than Native Americans received in federal dollars, but many tribes and individuals have no share in it.
Hispanic Americans have historically low turnout, but they carry a lot of political clout.
Voto Latino has focused on getting eligible Hispanicvoters registered and mobilized to vote, and they can have a strong impact on elections in key regions of the country.
Casino gambling is controversial.
Some Native Americans see gambling as their salvation, while others think it's a bad idea.
The revenue created by the casinos has allowed Indian tribes to become major donors to political campaigns in states such as California, which has increased their political clout though leaving them open to criticism for making big money donations while many reservations remain poverty stricken.
Many Americans object to the economy.
Donald Trump, a casino owner, claims that Congress is giving special privileges to Native Americans that may threaten their own business interests.
Regardless of the moral and economic questions unleashed by the casino boom, for many Native Americans it is a way to recover some of the resources that were lost in the past.
There is a chance for improvement.
Some lower court orders have supported the rights of Native Americans.
In 1996 President Bill Clinton issued an executive order that requires federal agencies to protect and provide access to sacred religious sites of American Indians, which has been a point of contention in Indian-federal relations.
When the Supreme Court ruled in 1996 that electoral districts couldn't be drawn to enhance the power of particular racial groups, Native Americans gained strength at the polls.
Sharice Davids, a Democrat from Kansas, became the first American Indian to serve in the US House of Representatives, while Tom Cole and Markwayne Mullin, both Republicans from Oklahoma, are currently serving in the House.
Elizabeth Warren claims to have American Indian ancestry.
Hispanic Americans have a history of discrimination in the United States.
They don't have the legal problems of Native Americans, but they face unique challenges in trying to fight discrimination and raise their standing in American society, and they did not have to contend with the tradition of slavery that burdened blacks.
The Hispanic experience is different because of the diversity within the Hispanic population, the language barrier that many face, and the political reaction to immigration from Mexico into the United States that often spills over to legal immigrants or citizens of Hispanic ancestry who have lived in the United States.
The narratives that drive the immigration debate are used to influence people's opinions about the people involved.
Hispanics make up over 16 percent of the population in the United States.
The Hispanic population grew at four times the U.S. average between 2000 and 2010 and has more than tripled in recent years.
The diversity of the Hispanic population is striking.
Hispanics have in common their Spanish heritage, but they have arrived in the United States at different times.
The majority of Hispanics are Mexican.
There is a lot of diversity within the group of Americans with Mexican heritage who are called Chicanos or Chicanas.
Immigrants from U.S. territories like Puerto Rico have settled in the United States.
Mexican Americans are mostly in California, Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico, while Puerto Ricans are mostly in New York, New Jersey, and other northern states.
These groups are not the same as place of origin and settlement.
Cubans are more likely to have been political refugees than are people from other countries.
Cubans who are educated and professional have regained their higher status in this country.
Almost 24 percent of Cuban Americans are college educated, which is comparable to the U.S. population as a whole, but only 9 percent of Mexican Americans and 16 percent of Puerto Ricans.
Hispanics don't see themselves as a single ethnic group with common interests and therefore act in political concert.
Their numbers show that if they acted together, they would wield a lot of power.
The challenge to Hispanics has been presented by language.