33.5 Immune System Disorders and Hypersensitivity Reactions
Some of the diseases that occur in people who are immune deficient are fatal.
Genetics mean that primary immunodeficiencies are passed from parent to child.
In severe combined immunodeficiency, both T cells and B cells are either lacking completely or not functioning well enough to protect the body from a variety of infections that are not a problem for most people.
About 1 in 500,000 births have SCID.
There are faulty genes that can cause SCID.
Most infants with SCID die when most of the antibodies that they have obtained from their mother have been degraded.
Gene therapy and a bone marrow transplant could be used to replace the stem cells that make up our white blood cells.
The outcome is usually poor if these treatments are unsuccessful.
Another primary immunodeficiency is X-linked agammaglobulinemia, which is caused by a genetic abnormality on the X chromosomes that is needed for proper development of B cells.
Only males have one X chromosomes.
A female with a normal gene on one of her X chromosomes does not develop the disease.
Boys with XLA can live normal lives if they receive regular injections of human IgG.
About 1 in 50,000 males have it.
Page 632 is an example of a secondary immunodeficiency and it is caused by HIV.
These disorders are acquired after birth.
Other potential causes of secondary infections include malnutrition, irradiation, certain drugs and toxins.
Addressing their cause can cure some of them.
An allergic reaction can happen in a matter of seconds.
The IgE class causes the response.
The mast cells in the tissues and the basophils and eosinophils in the blood have IgE antibodies attached to them.
The cells release substances that bring about the symptoms of an allergy when an allergy is attached to an IgE antibodies.
If a person has asthma, the airways leading to the lungs can be hard to breathe in.
An allergy to food can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Mast cells release histamine and other chemicals that are responsible for the allergic reaction when an allergen is attached to IgE.
Anaphylactic shock is an allergic response that occurs after an allergy has entered the bloodstream.
Bee sting, latex rubber, and various medications are all known to cause this reaction in some individuals.
A sudden and life-threatening drop in blood pressure is called an Anaphylactic shock.
The smooth muscle lining the bronchi can be stimulated to contract, causing an inability to breathe.
Some people carry an EpiPen to counteract the reaction if medical help is not available.
Allergies that are mild to moderate are usually treated with antihistamines.
In more serious cases, the immune system can be stimulated with injections of the allergen in order to produce high quantities of IgG against it.
The hope is that the IgE antibodies will combine with the allergen molecule before reaching them.
Xolair is a antibody that blocks the binding of IgE to its receptor on inflammatory cells.
A is initiated by T cells in the body.
The sensitized T cells at the site regulate the allergic response.
The skin test for Tuberculosis is an example of a delayed allergic response.
When the test result is positive, the tissue that was injected becomes hardened.
There is a delayed allergic response when a person's skin reacts to poison ivy, jewelry, cosmetics, or other substances.
It is not known what causes the diseases.
There is a tendency to develop autoimmune diseases in some cases.
After recovering from an illness, many autoimmune diseases occur.
There is a phenomenon known as "molecular mimicry", in which the antigens of certain pathogens can be similar to those found in their host.
The inflammation of the heart can occur even after thebacteria have been removed from the body, because the cell wall of thesebacteria resemble the heart's cells.
Specific tissues are affected by some autoimmune diseases.
Rheumatoid arthritis causes inflammation in the joints.
T cells and B cells destroy the joints and eventually become immobile.
Muscular weakness can be caused by myasthenia gravis.
Multiplesclerosis is caused by T cells attacking the myelin sheath of nerve fibers, which causes a variety of symptoms.
Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by inflammation in the joints.
Systemic lupus erythematosus affects multiple tissues and organs.
The production of antibodies that react with the DNA in almost every cell of the body is what characterizes it.
The United States has 1.5 million people with the disease.
There are no cures for autoimmune disorders because little is known about their origin.
The symptoms can be controlled with immunosuppressive drugs, but they can have serious side effects.
If the body did not attempt to reject the organs, they could be easily transferred from one person to another.
The immune system has a double-edged sword.
Major targets of the immune response during the rejection of a transplant are MHC proteins.
Different individuals have different MHC proteins.
The immune system will attack foreign tissue that is different from the individual.
The odds of organ rejection can be reduced by administering immunosuppressive drugs, even though it is difficult to find a perfect MHC match.
Two commonly used drugs, cyclosporine and tacrolimus, block the production of certain cytokines by T cells.
Pig organs can be made less antigenic with genetic engineering.
The ultimate goal is for pig organs to be accepted as blood cells.
Tissue engineering, including the production of human organs from stem cells, will someday do away with the problem of rejection.
Stem cells gathered fromamniotic fluid following amniocentesis and lab-grown bladder tissue have been successfully used to rebuild bladders in humans.
In insects, innate immunity is developed through the recognition of pathogen patterns.
There arenate defenses that are present or occur very soon after exposure to an infection.
The B cells and T cells are involved in adaptive immunity.
Dendritic cells and macrophages are some of the types ofAPCs.
The MHC class I proteins on the surface of cancer and virus cells are recognized by the cells.
They kill these cells by releasing perforin and granzymes.
Passive immunity can occur naturally or can be used as a medical treatment.
There are either primary or secondary Immunodeficiencies.
In a transplant rejection, the immune system is usually responding to the cells of the donated organ.
Pick the best answer for the question.
True adaptive immunity, involving the production of a large number of diverse antigen receptors, first evolved in the salamander.
There are thick walls of smooth muscle in the lymphatic vessels.
The B cells mature.
Natural killer cells are known for attacking parasites.
It is an innate defense mechanism.
The theory of clonal selection says that an antigen selects certain B cells and suppresses them.
The same as memory cells.
Refer to the class described for the questions.
17 were produced by the first class of antibodies.
The major class of antibody is found in milk, tears, and saliva.
They have something in common.
They are able to recognize the MHC proteins.
Having a disease can produce active immunity.
A child with severe combined immunodeficiency will have low or absent amounts of antibodies.
There is immediate hypersensitivity after an allergic reaction.
A skin test for Tuberculosis can be positive.
Some primitive organisms, such as insturments, lack an adaptive immune system, but they have some components of an innate immune system.
Antivenom should be given to anyone bitten by a poisonous snake.
Explain the type of immunity someone gains from a shot of antibodies.