Some people use certain strategies to get others to agree with them.
The focus of psychological research has been on compliance strategies.
You need to borrow money from a friend.
If you can get people to agree to a small request, they will be more likely to agree to a larger request.
Once your friend agrees to lend you $5, he or she is more likely to lend you more money.
The friend is willing to lend you money.
The door-in-the-face strategy says that after people refuse a large request, they will look more favorably upon a follow-up request.
Your friend might feel bad after you refused to lend them $100.
Norms of reciprocity is a common strategy.
People think that if someone does something nice for them, they should reciprocate by doing something nice of their own.
When you cast your vote in the student election for the candidate that handed out chocolate chip cookies or when you send money to the charity that sent you free return address labels, Norms of reciprocity are at work.
Attribution theory is studied in the field of social cognitive.
Attribution theory tries to explain how people decide what to observe.
If your friend tells you he got a perfect score on his math test, you might think he's very good at math.
You have made a dispositional or person attribute.
You can attribute Charley's success to a situational factor, such as an easy test.
Attributions can either be stable or unstable.
A stable attribution is a person who has always been a math whiz.
If you think that Charley studied a lot for this test, you have made a person unstable.
If you think that Ms. Mahoney is an easy teacher, you have made a situation-stable attribution.
You have made a situation unstable if you think that Ms. Mahoney is a tough teacher who gave one easy test.
A theory was put forth by Harold Kelley that explains the way people make attributions based on three different types of information.
This situation is similar to others we have watched.
We are asked to consider how others have responded.
It's important to use consensus when determining whether to attribute a person or situation.
We seem to have learned something about Charley if he is the only one to get such a good score on the math test.
If everyone earned a high score on the test, we would suspect that something in the situation contributed to that outcome.
When determining whether to make a stable or unstable attribution, consistency is very important.
It seems more likely that Charley is skilled at math than that he studied hard for the test.
If everyone does well on Ms. Mahoney's tests, we would make the situation stable and say that she is an easy teacher.
IfCharley scores low in Ms. Mahoney's class, we will be more likely to make a situation-unstable attribution such as this test was easy.
People have opinions about other people before they meet them.
The way someone acts toward another person can be affected by these preconceived ideas.
Expectations we have about others can affect how they behave.
A self-fulfilling prophecy is a phenomenon.
If Jon is told repeatedly that he is funny, he may treat him in a way that will make him laugh.
The "Pygmalion in the Classroom" experiment was a classic study of self-fulfilling prophecies.
They gave a test to elementary school children to identify those who were on the verge of academic growth.
The test was a standard IQ test.
The researchers randomly selected a group of children from the population who took the test and told their teachers that they were ready for such intellectual progress.
Since the children were randomly selected, they did not differ from the other children in the school.
At the end of the year, the researchers returned to take another measure of the students' IQ and found that the scores of the identified children had increased more than the scores of their classmates.
The teachers' expectations that the students would bloom intellectually over the course of the year caused them to perform better than their peers.
Even though people are good at sifting through the data, you will probably not be surprised to learn that errors are not uncommon.
People tend to make the same mistakes.
The biases include the fundamental attribution error, false-consensus effect, self-serving bias, and the just-world belief.
People tend to underestimate the role of situational factors when looking at the behavior of others.
The fundamental attribution error is caused by this tendency.
Claude is a young man you have never met before, and you are introduced to him at a party.
Claude is unresponsive when you try to talk to him.
He looks past you and then leaves.
Claude is an unfriendly person according to most people.
Claude's behavior may have been caused by something in the situation.
Maybe Claude had a fight with his girlfriend.
He might have had a car accident on the way to the party.
People seem to underestimate the role of dispositional factors in influencing another person's actions.
People don't show the same tendency in explaining their own behaviors.
Claude knows that he is warm and outgoing.
People are more likely to make situational attributions about themselves than about others, because they get to view themselves in countless situations.
Everyone has been friendly and shy at times.
People are more likely to say that their behavior depends on the situation.
Students confuse self-serving bias and self-fulfilling prophecies because they both contain the word self.
The tendency to overstate one's role in a positive venture and underestimate it in a failure is called self-serving bias.
People make themselves look good to serve themselves.
Self-fulfilling prophecies explain how people's ideas about others can affect the behavior of others.
There is a caveat to our discussion of the fundamental error.
It was thought to be so widespread that it was named fundamental.
According to many cross-cultural psychologists, the fundamental attribution error is less likely to occur in collectivist cultures than in individualism.
The individuality of the individual is stressed in an individualism culture like the American culture.
In Japanese culture, a person's link to various groups is stressed.
According to cross-cultural research, people in collectivist cultures are more aware of how different situations affect their behavior.
The false-consensus effect is a tendency for people to underestimate the number of people who agree with them.
If he dislikes horror movies, he is likely to think that most other people do the same.
Sabrina overestimates the number of people who share her passion for horror movies.
The tendency to take more credit for good outcomes than bad ones is called self-serving bias.
A basketball coach is more likely to emphasize her role in the team's championship win than in their first-round tournament loss.
People tend to think that bad things happen to good people.
The belief in a just world, known as the just-world bias, in which misfortunes befall people who deserve them, can be seen in the tendency to blame victims.
The woman was raped because she was walking alone in a dangerous neighborhood.
People are unemployed because they are lazy.
If the world is like this, we don't need to worry about bad things happening to ourselves.
The way we interact with members of different groups may be influenced by what we think they are like.
These ideas are called stereotypes.
Stereotypes can be positive or negative and can be applied to virtually any group of people.
New Yorkers are stereotyped as unfriendly and rude by people, while Californians are seen as friendly and attractive.
According to some cognitive psychologists, stereotypes are about groups.
Some people argue that the former are more difficult to change than the latter.
Prejudice is a negative attitude toward a group of people.
Stereotyping can lead to prejudice when negative stereotypes are applied uncritically to all members of a group.
The belief that one's culture is superior to others is a specific kind of prejudice.
People see their own cultures as the norm and use them as the standard to judge other cultures.
Many people look down upon others who don't dress the same, eat the same foods, or worship the same God as they do.
Discrimination involves an action.
One acts on one's prejudices when they discriminate.
If I don't hire New Yorkers in my company, I'm engaging in discrimination.
Stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination all reinforce one another.
People's beliefs and attitudes affect each other.
When people act in adiscriminatory way, they are motivated to strengthen their prejudices and stereotypes to justify their actions.
Students can't distinguish between prejudice and discrimination.
The latter is a behavior and the former is an attitude.
Many theories attempt to explain how people are prejudiced.
The cognitive process of categorization has been suggested as a reason why people tend to exaggerate differences between their own group and others.
This idea suggests that people can't avoid forming stereotypes if they take into account in-group bias.
Stereotypes and prejudice are often learned through modeling, according to social learning theorists.
Parents who express prejudice may be more likely to have their children embrace it.
The theory suggests that prejudice could be unlearned by exposure to different models.
The contact theory is a theory about reducing prejudice.
According to the contact theory, if groups are made to work toward a goal that benefits all and necessitates the participation of all, they will reduce animosity.
Such a goal is called a superordinate goal.
Muzafer Sherif's camp study shows how easy it is to create out-group bias and how superordinate goals can be used to unite formerly antagonistic groups.
He was at a summer camp.
He arranged for the campers to compete in a series of activities after dividing them into two groups.
Negative feelings were created between the groups because of the competition.
Sherif staged several camp emergencies that required the groups to cooperate once the prejudices had been established.
Relations between the groups were improved by the superordinate goal.
The contact theory can be used to reduce prejudice between different groups in school.
One goal of most cooperative learning activities is to bring members of different social groups into contact with one another as they work towards a superordinate goal.
Aggressive behavior is one of the major areas of study for social psychologists.
There are two types of aggression: instrumental aggression and hostile aggression.
When the aggressive act is intended to secure a particular end, it's called instrumental aggression.
If Bobby wants to hold the doll that Carol is holding and he kicks her and grabs it, he has engaged in instrumental aggression.
Hostile aggression has no clear purpose.
Bobby's aggression is hostile if he kicks Carol.
There are many theories about the cause of human aggression.
The death instinct was linked to aggression by Freud.
Sociobiologists think that the expression of aggression is adaptive.
The frustration-aggression hypothesis is one of the most influential theories.
The feeling of frustration is believed to make aggression more likely.
Considerable experimental evidence supports it.
Bandura, Ross, and Ross's classic Bobo doll experiment illustrates a theory that exposure to aggressive models makes people aggressive.
The factors that make people more likely to help one another have been studied by social psychologists.
Helping behavior is called prosocial behavior.
The research in this area has focused on bystander intervention, the conditions under which people nearby are more and less likely to help someone in trouble.
The vicious murder of Kitty Genovese in New York, committed within view of at least 38 witnesses, led John Darley and Bibb Latane to explore how people decide whether or not to help others in distress.
The larger the number of people who witness an emergency situation, the less likely anyone is to intervene.
The bystander effect is a finding.
diffusion of responsibility is an explanation for this phenomenon.
The larger a group of people, the less responsible they are.
People assume someone else will take action so they don't.
The bystander effect is a result of pluralistic ignorance.
People seem to decide what is appropriate behavior in a situation by looking at others.
If no one in the classroom is worried about the black smoke coming through the vent, then taking no action is the right thing to do.
What factors increase the chance of liking one another is studied by social psychologists.
A large amount of research shows that we like others who are similar to us and who return our positive feelings.
The three factors are often referred to as similarity, proximity, and reciprocal liking.
According to psychological research, we are drawn to people who are similar to us, those who share our attitudes, and interests.
Nearness means proximity.
The mere-exposure effect suggests that the more exposure one has to another person, the more they like that person.
By talking to someone, you can identify the similarities that will draw the pair closer together.
It's not enjoyable to like someone who hates you.
The more people like you, the more you like that person.
People are attracted to other people who are attractive.
Being nice-looking extends well beyond the realm of attraction.
Good-looking people are seen as having more positive attributes such as better personality and better job competence.
The concept of love has been studied by psychologists.
The subject of love has proven difficult to explain, as research shows that the emotion of love qualitatively differs from liking and a number of theories about love have been proposed.
Self-disclosure is a term used in liking and loving studies.
A person self-discloses when they share a piece of personal information with another person.
A process of self-disclosure can be used to build close relationships with friends and lovers.
On the path to intimacy, one person shares a detail of his or her life and the other exposes a facet of his or her own.
In social psychology, how an individual's behavior can be affected by another person's actions or presence is a major area of research.
People perform tasks better in front of an audience than they do alone, according to a number of studies.
They run faster, yell louder, and reel in a fishing rod quicker.
The presence of others improves task performance.
Being watched by others hurt performance when a task is difficult rather than a simple, well-practiced skill, as found in later studies.
Conformity has been studied a lot.
Conformity is the tendency of people to agree with others.
One of the most interesting conformity experiments was conducted by Solomon Asch.
Participants were brought into a room of confederates and asked to make simple perceptual judgments.
The participants were shown three vertical lines of different sizes and were asked if they were the same length as a different target line.
The last person to speak was the member of the group who gave their answers.
There was a clear answer in all of the trials.
All of the confederates gave the same incorrect judgement on some of them.
Asch wanted to know what the participants would do.
When the confederates gave incorrect answers, the participants conformed.
70 percent of the participants conformed to at least one of the trials.
Studies show that when a group's opinion is unanimous, conformity is most likely to occur.
Studies have shown that groups larger than three do not increase the tendency to conform.
Conformity involves following a group without being explicitly told to do so, but obedience studies focus on participants willingness to do what another asks them to do.
The classic obedience studies were conducted by Stanley Milgram.
He told his participants that they were taking part in a study about teaching and learning and that they were assigned to play the part of a teacher.
The learner was a Confederate.
Each participant's job was to shock the learner with an electric shock when they were wrong.
The participant sat behind a panel of buttons that were labeled with the number of volts, starting at 15 and increasing by 15 up to 450.
The levels of shock were described in different ways.
The confederate pretended to be shocked in reality.
The confederate screamed in pain and said he had a heart condition as the shocks increased.
He wanted to know how far participants would go before they stopped delivering shocks.
Over 60 percent of the participants obeyed the experimenter and delivered all the possible shocks.
There were a number of interesting twists in the study.
He was able to decrease participants' compliance by getting them closer to the confederates.
People who could see the learners gave less shocks than people who could only hear them.
Participants had to force the learner's hand onto the shock plate to administer the lowest shock rates.
In that last condition, 30 percent of the shocks were delivered.
When the experimenter left in the middle of the experiment and was replaced by an assistant, there was a decrease in obedience.
The percentage of participants who quit in the middle of the experiment went up when other confederates objected to the shocks.
The final note about the experiment bears mentioning.
It would not receive the approval of an IRB today because it has been criticized on ethical grounds.
Many participants learned that if the shocks were real, they would have killed the learner.
Some people were profoundly disturbed by this insight.
We are all in different groups.
The lawyers at a particular firm are a group, the students in your school are a group, and the baseball team is a group.
Some groups exert more pressure on their members than others.
Rules about how group members should act are in all groups.
The lawyers at the firm may have rules governing work dress.
Specific roles are often within groups.
There are different roles for players on a baseball team.
People take advantage of being part of a group.
Social loafing occurs when individuals don't put in as much effort when acting in a group as they do when acting alone.
One explanation for the effect is that an individual's efforts are more visible if they are alone.
A person may be less motivated to perform when they are part of a group.
Being part of a group may encourage members to take advantage of the group effort without taxing themselves unnecessarily.
Group polarization is the tendency of a group to make more extreme decisions than individual members.
Studies about group polarization usually have participants give their opinions individually, then group them to discuss their decisions, and then have the group make a decision.
The idea that people in a group may be exposed to new, persuasive arguments they had not thought of themselves and that the responsibility for an extreme decision in a group is spread across the group's many members is one of the explanations for group polarization.
Groupthink is a term that describes the tendency for some groups to make bad decisions.
Group members suppress their reservations about the group's ideas.
A false unanimity is encouraged and flaws in the group's decisions may be overlooked.
Highly cohesive groups are at particular risk for groupthink.
Sometimes people are swept up by a group and do things they wouldn't have done on their own.
This loss of self-restraint occurs when group members feel aroused and anonymous.
Phillip Zimbardo's prison experiment showed how such conditions can cause people to deviduate but also the effect of roles and the situation in general.
A group of students were assigned to play the roles of a prison guard or prisoner.
The prisoners were assigned numbers and all were dressed in uniforms.
The prisoners were locked up in the basement of the psychology building and the guards were in charge of their treatment.
The experiment had to be ended early because of the cruel treatment the guards were giving the prisoners, and the students took to their assigned roles too well.
Five suggested answers or completions are followed by each of the questions or incomplete statements.
Pick the one that is the best.
On Monday, she asked her teacher to delay the test until Friday.
After her teacher refused, she asked the teacher to push the test back one day.
During the first week of school, your social studies teacher says that your new neighbor knows a lot about ancient Greece.
She might have learned about ancient Greece in her old school.
The color orange has always been hated by Janine.
She began to wear orange clothing when she was a student at Princeton.
Pasquale's performance in the orchestra concert was worse than when he practiced at home.
Megan told Francisco that she still loves to watch Rugrats.
He told her that he still cries when he watches the movie.
On the first day of class, Mr. Simpson divides his class into four groups.
On the fifth day of school, Jody was sent to the principal for kicking members of the other groups.
Many social psychology experiments use confederates.
Confederates are people who work with the experimenter.