The problems of reconstruction were faced by Augustus after the civil wars ended.
He had to rebuild effective government, pay his army, care for the welfare of the provinces, and address the danger of various groups on Rome's frontiers.
Augustus was successful in meeting these challenges.
Augustus claimed that he was restoring the republic, but he was actually transforming the government into one in which all power was held by a single ruler.
Augustus fit his own position into the republican constitution by gradually taking over many of the offices that had been held by separate people.
He was often called the tribune and the consul by the Senate.
He was named imperator, a title given to victorious commanders, and held control of the army, which he made a permanent standing organization.
The Senate was a court of law.
Augustus did not say that he created the office of emperor.
Augustus made the provincial administration more orderly.
Grants of land in the frontier provinces were awarded to veterans.
Local self-government and the development of cities were encouraged by him.
The cult became a symbol of Roman unity and a part of the goddess Victory.
He had temples, stadiums, marketplaces, and public buildings constructed in Rome and other cities.
Men and women who were unmarried or had no children were not allowed to inherit property.
Aside from addressing legal issues, Augustus encouraged poets and writers.
The period of his rule is known as the golden age of Latin literature.
Roman poets and prose writers celebrated human accomplishments in works that were highly polished, elegant and intellectual.
He is the head of the army.
The figures on his breastplate show various peoples the Romans had defeated or made treaties with.
The statue shows Augustus barefoot and accompanied by a dolphin and Venus, both symbols of the goddess Venus, who he claimed to be a descendant of.
The greatest poet of Rome was Virgil.
The legend of Aeneas, who escaped to Italy at the fall of Troy, is based on the account of the founding of Rome by Virgil.
Aeneas became the lover of Dido, the widowed queen of Carthage, but left her because his destiny called him to Rome.
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Aeneas left Dido because he wanted the good of the state ahead of marriage or pleasure.
Roman expansion into northern and western Europe was one of the most significant aspects of Augustus's reign.
The Roman road system linked new settlements with one another and with Italy when Augustus conquered Spain and founded twelve new towns in Gaul.
He made the Rhine River the Roman frontier.
Roman legions penetrated the areas of modern Austria, southern Bavaria, and western Hungary, as well as the areas of the Danube River.
Modern Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania all fell.
The legionaries built fortified camps in this area.
Settlements grew around the camps after roads linked them with one another.
For the first time, central and northern Europe came into contact with Mediterranean culture after traders began to frequent the frontier and do business with the people who lived there.
Rome expanded in all directions, eventually controlling the entire Mediterranean.
Today's major cities were founded as Roman colonies.
The Romans didn't force their culture on native people.
The surest path to political and social advancement in the Hellenistic world was learned Latin and Roman culture.
The Ara Pacis was built in the middle of Augustus's reign to honor him and the peace he had brought to the empire.
The altar is made of marble and decorated with sculptures.
There are vines and garlands, along with life-size reliefs of Augustus and members of his family, civil servants, priests, women, and children, all in a procession toward a religious sacrifice.
Several walls show deities or mythological figures, but they are often badly damaged, and it is not clear what they originally represented.
The best preserved panel shows a goddess figure with twin babies on her lap, flanked by nymphs representing land and sea, and surrounded by plants, fruits, and animals.
The altar was built in the flood plain of the Tiber River and eventually became buried under a thick layer of silt.
In the 1930s the Fascist government of Italy ordered a complete excavation and reconstruction after discovering fragments.
As part of his plan to connect Fascist Italy with the glories of ancient Rome, Mussolini moved it to a new protective building near other monuments.
The Ara Pacis was a work of public art and political propaganda designed to honor both Augustus and Roman civic religion.
The "Roman peace" was created by Augustus in the late 18th century and was described by an English historian as lasting about two hundred years.
During this time when the city of Rome was growing, trade and production flourished in the provinces, despite people being conquered by the Romans.
Rome came into contact with China.
Tiberius and Claudius were sound rulers and created a bureaucracy to help them govern.
Caligula and Nero were weak and frivolous.
Military rebellion and widespread disruption were caused by Nero's incompetent rule.
He expanded the emperor's powers and turned Augustus's principate into a hereditary monarchy.
Mount Vesuvius erupted in southern Italy, killing thousands of Antonines and destroying Pompeii and other cities.
The wars were confined to the frontiers.
Changes in government made in the second century helped the empire run more efficiently while increasing the authority of the emperor.
Non-Romans joined the army willingly to gain citizenship, receive a salary, and learn a trade, because army service could lead to citizenship.
The frontiers were defended by forts and walls.
Behind these walls, the network of roads was expanded and improved, both to supply the forts and to reinforce them in times of trouble.
The response of government officials to natural disasters was seen as a mark of their character and capabilities, just as it is today.
The author of the first text describes the actions of his uncle during the eruption of Mount Vesuvius.
My uncle was in charge of the fleet.
The cloud of unusual size and appearance was noticed by my mother in the early afternoon and my uncle ordered a boat to be made ready.
He ordered the warships to be launched so that he could bring help to many more people.
He went straight for the danger zone after everyone else left.
He was completely fearless, describing each new movement and phase of the portent to be noted down exactly as he observed them.
As the ships drew near, ashes were already falling, hotter and thicker, followed by bits of pumice and blackened stones, charred and cracked by the flames.
He brought his ship in.
On Mount Vesuvius, sheets of fire and leaping flames can be seen at several points, their bright glare emphasized by the darkness of night.
The buildings were shaking with violent shocks, and seemed to be torn from their foundations, as my uncle went down to investigate on the spot.
I think he collapsed because of the fumes that were suffocating his breathing.
Ji An was appointed as a mounted guard to the heir apparent during the reign of Emperor Jing.
He was sick a lot of the time, confined to his bed and unable to go out, and yet after only a year as governor he had succeeded in setting the affairs of the province in perfect order.
The book was reproduced with the permission of Columbia University Press.
The Romans were able to conquer and hold a huge empire thanks to the military.
As the empire grew, the Romans needed to recruit troops from conquered areas and make them effective, loyal, and dependable.
Caesar describes his efforts to rally his wavering troops in his account of his successful campaigns in Gaul.
Our whole army was suddenly affected by a terrible panic.
The Gauls and traders described how tall and strong the Germans were, how brave and skillful with weapons, and how our men started asking questions.
The panic began among the military tribunes and prefects, and the other men who had followed Caesar from Rome to court his friendship.
When the Cimbri and Teutoni were expelled, the danger posed by this enemy had already been experienced.
Caesar said that it was clear that the army deserved as much credit as its commander.
The Germans were the same people who had clashed with the Helvetii, and the same people who had beaten them, not only within their own borders but also in Germany itself.
They would strike camp during the fourth watch.
He would know as soon as possible if their sense of shame and duty was stronger than their fear.
The Jewish revolt against the Romans took place in 66 C.E.
The Romans were used as a model for the Jewish army.
He writes of himself in the third person.
The invincible might of Rome was due to unhesitating obedience and to practicing in arms.
He divided the soldiers into different classes and put them under different commanders.
He taught them how to pass on signals, how to sound the advance and retreat, how to make flank attacks and encircling movements, and how a victorious unit could relieve one in difficulties and assist any who were hard pressed.
He explained what made the body or spirit strong.
He trained them for war by emphasizing Roman discipline at every turn, and they would be facing men who had conquered almost the entire world.
Bronze sheets were wired together to record a former soldier's tours of duty, record of service, and status as a citizen.
As members of the military today receive discharge papers, one copy stayed in Rome and was sent to the soldier.
This clay plaque was made for the roof of a building by a person stationed in Britain.
At a time when the Roman Empire was in decline and the army faced many challenges, Vegetius set out what he saw as ideal military recruitment and training.
In every battle, skill and training are more important than numbers and bravery.
There is no other explanation for the conquest of the world by the Roman People than their drill-at-arms, campdiscipline and military expertise.
Careful selection of recruits, instruction in the rules, toughening in daily exercises, and strict punishment of cowardice were some of the things that succeeded against the enemies.
Scientific knowledge of warfare helps in battle.
No one is afraid to do what they know how to do.
A small force which is highly trained in the conflicts of war is more apt to win.
Rural people are better suited for arms.
They are nurtured under the open sky in a life of work, enduring the sun, careless of shade, unacquainted with bathhouses, ignorant of luxury, simple souled, content with a little, with limbs hardened to endure every kind of toil.
Everyone knows that those entering puberty should be brought to the levy.
For those things are learned more quickly and completely from childhood.
The body stiffens with age, so jumping and running should be done before that happens.
It is more useful for soldiers to be strong.
If numbers and morals suffice, the youth in whose hands the defence of provinces is to be placed should be of outstanding breeding.
A sense of shame prevents flight and makes a soldier a victor.
The military's role in the empire's expansion can be analyzed using the sources above and what you have learned in class.
Permission was granted for this to be reproduced by the University Press.
Much of the empire's wealth flowed into Rome.
The city may have been the largest city in the world at that time.
Most people in Rome lived in shoddily constructed houses and took whatever work was available.
Many residents of the city of Rome were slaves, who ranged from highly educated household tutors or government officials to workers who engaged in hard physical tasks.
In Augustus's day, fire and crime were a problem.
New construction and urban planning improved the situation in the second century.
Engineers built an elaborate system that collected sewage from public baths, the ground floors of buildings, and public latrines.
They built hundreds of miles of underground aqueducts to bring fresh water into the city from the surrounding hills.
Rome became more difficult to feed because it grew so large.
The emperors provided citizens with free oil, wine, and grain.
They stayed in favor with the people by doing that.
The people were entertained with gladiatorial contests in which participants fought using swords and other weapons.
Poor immigrants saw gladiatorial combat as a way to support themselves and the number of volunteers increased during the imperial period.
All gladiators were slaves and could not keep their winnings, but a few became wealthy.
The Romans were addicted to chariot racing.
Winning charioteers were idols just as sports stars are today.
The mosaic was made in the first half of the fourth century C.E.
and has the name of each gladiator next to it.
At the top a gladiator stands in a victory pose, while the fallen gladiator is marked with the symbol O, indicating that he has died in combat.
Many of the gladiators in this mosaic, such as those at the left, are less fit and fearsome than the gladiators depicted in movies, reflecting the reality that gladiatorial combat was a job undertaken by a variety of people.
Many Roman provinces grew prosperous through the growth of agriculture, trade, and industry as the empire grew.
Peace and security allowed settlers from other parts of the Roman Empire to come to Britain, Gaul, and the lands of the Danube.
Veterans were given small parcels of land in the provinces.
The rural population of the empire left few records, but the inscriptions that remain point to a melding of cultures.
The original language of the area was mixed with Latin to create a new language.
Romance languages of Spanish, Italian, French, Portuguese, and Romanian evolved slowly.
Religion was a place of cultural exchange.
Gradually hybrid deities and rituals were developed.
These three structures are examples of Roman architecture.
The Coliseum in Rome is a sports arena that can seat fifty thousand people.
The Pantheon in Rome, a temple dedicated to all the gods, was built after other temples on the site had burned down.
The largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world is 140 feet in diameter.
Concrete was used for more everyday purposes by Romans.
The Pont du Gard is a bridge over a river that was used to deliver water to the Roman city of Nimes in Gaul.
Many Roman aqueducts and bridges relied on concrete and iron for strength.
The Romans were the first to build cities in northern Europe, but they were the first to rule the eastern Mediterranean.
There was a lot of continuity from the Hellenistic period.
Existing buildings in the Roman cities of northern and western Europe could be put to new uses.
The Roman Empire was made an economic and political force by the expansion of trade.
Britain's wool industry probably got its start under the Romans.
Italy and southern Gaul produced a lot of wine.
Most of the oil consumed in the western part of the empire came from southern Spain and northern Africa.
One of the few artisans from the ancient world whose name we know is Ennion, who came from the coastal city of Sidon in modern Lebanon.
He had a powerful influence on the Roman glass industry because of the fine detail and precision of his work.
The growth of industry in the provinces was one of the highlights of this period, as cities in Gaul and Germany overtook the old Mediterranean manufacturing centers.
The cities of Gaul and Cologne in Germany became the new centers of the glassmaking industry.
New methods of potterymaking were brought northwards by soldiers in the Roman army.
The kilns were large enough to fire tens of thousands of pots at once.
Europe and western Asia were linked in ways they had not been before because of the growth in trade and industry.
The Romans encountered the Parthians, who established a kingdom in Afghanistan and Iran in the Hellenistic period.
The Romans tried to drive out the Parthians in the second century.
Chinese merchants sold their wares to the Parthians, who then took the goods overland to Mesopotamia or Egypt, where they were shipped throughout the Roman Empire.
The captured Roman soldiers and engineers were employed by Shapur to build roads, bridges, dams, and canals.
Although warfare disrupted parts of western Asia, it did not stop trade west.
The Romans traded glassware, gems, and slaves.
Exotic fruits, rare birds, rugs, and other products were added by the Parthians.
Roman ships sailed from Egyptian ports to the mouth of the Indus River, where they purchased local goods and wares from the Parthians.
The African coast was pushed into the Indian Ocean by hardy mariners.
Evidence of trade connections can be found in Roman coins, although most likely no merchant traveled the entire distance.
The era of Han greatness in China coincides with this contact.
As far as the Persian Gulf ports, he heard about the Romans from Parthian sailors and reported back to his emperor that they were similar to the Chinese.
Romans had no interest in China.
China was more of a myth than a real place for them, and they never bothered to learn more about it.
Christianity, the religion created by Jesus's followers, had an enormous impact first in the Roman Empire and then throughout the world.
The civil wars that destroyed the Roman Republic left a mark on Judaea, where Jewish leaders had taken sides in the conflict.
The Jews movements in opposition to the Romans spread because of the turmoil.
Many Jews believed that a final struggle would lead to the coming of a Savior or that the Roman legions would be destroyed and there would be a period of happiness for Jews.
By the first century C.E., this apocalyptic belief was an old one among Jews.
Many Christians believed that Jesus was the Messiah because of the Jewish belief that he would bring peace and happiness to the Jews.
The story of early Christianity was told by the pagan world.
Those who practiced religions other than Judaism or Christianity came to be referred to as those who lived in the countryside.
As the Roman Empire expanded, the civic religion devoted to the gods of the home and the countryside was blended with the worship of other local deities.
The cult of the emperor, spread through the erection of statues, temples, and monuments, had been added to this, and for some people mystery religions offered the promise of life after death.
Many people in the Roman Empire practiced all of the religions at the same time.
Those who lived in the countryside were referred to as those who practiced religions other than Judaism or Christianity.
Jesus of Nazareth came into this climate of hope and Roman religious blend.
He was raised in Galilee by deeply religious Jewish parents.
He began his ministry when he was thirty years old.
Jesus did not leave any writings.
The accounts of his sayings and teachings were written down after they were spread among his followers.
The four Gospels of the Bible are the main evidence for his life and actions.
The records of Jesus's teachings were written in the late first century.
There are discrepancies between the four different accounts of what Jesus said and did.
The differences show that early followers had different beliefs about Jesus.
The earliest known depiction of Jesus is a mural from a Roman camp.
The New Testament describes Jesus healing a paralytic man.
The early Christians used art to spread their message.
Most of the early sources agree that Jesus preached of a heavenly kingdom of eternal happiness in a life after death and of the importance of devotion to God and love of others.
His teachings reflected a conception of God and morality that came from Jewish tradition.
A small group of followers thought so, and Jesus claimed that he was.
Jesus had a different conception of the Messiah.
He would establish a spiritual kingdom.
Pontius Pilate didn't know much about Jesus's teachings.
He was worried about maintaining order.
According to the New Testament, crowds followed Jesus into Jerusalem at the time of Passover, a highly emotional point in the Jewish year that marked the Jewish people's departure from Egypt.
The prospect of these crowds sparking violence alarmed Pilate.
Jews believed that Jesus was the Messiah.
Others hated him because they thought he was dangerous.
Jesus was condemned to death and his soldiers carried it out.
Some of Jesus's followers claimed that he had risen from the dead on the third day after his crucifixion.
The resurrection of Jesus became a central part of faith for his earliest followers.
To commemorate Jesus's last meal with his disciples before his arrest, believers in Jesus's divinity met in small assembly or congregation, often in one another's homes, to discuss the meaning of Jesus's message and to celebrate.
They viewed earthly life and institutions as unimportant because they expected Jesus to return to the world very soon.
The religion of Christianity was formed with a formal organization and set of beliefs.
Many believers bought household goods with Christian symbols.
Paul of Tarsus, a Hellenized Jew, was the catalyst for the spread of Jesus's teachings.
Paul wrote letters of advice when he was in the Roman Empire.
These letters transformed Jesus's ideas into more specific moral teachings.
As a result of his efforts, Paul became the most important figure in changing Christianity from a Jewish sect into a separate religion, and many of his letters became part of Christian Scripture.
The Roman Empire was a factor in the spread of Christianity.
All roads led to Rome.
Jesus had told his followers to spread their faith around the world, and this enabled early Christians to do so easily.
The two concepts of universalism were combined by Christians.
People from all social classes were included in the earliest Christian converts.
These people were reached by missionaries and other people who spread the Christian message.
Many women spread Christianity.
Paul welcomed male and female converts by name in his letters, and noted that women often provided financial support for his activities.
Some Christian communities wanted to give women a bigger role in church affairs, while others were more restrictive.
There were many reasons people were attracted to Christian teachings.
Christianity offered its followers special teachings that would give them immortality.
Christianity promised this immortality to everyone, not just a few.
Christianity offered the possibility of forgiveness for believers who accepted that human nature is weak and that even the best Christians could fall into sin.
Jesus loved sinners and forgiven them.
Christianity gave the Roman world a cause and was attractive to many.
Christians played a part in God's plan for the triumph of Christianity by spreading the word of Christ.
Christianity gave its devotees a sense of community.
Christians call one another brother and sister in order to stress the spiritual kinship of this new type of community.
Many Christians took Jesus's command to love one another as a guide and provided support for widows, orphans, and the poor, just as they would for family members.
The followers of Jesus were largely ignored by the Roman officials, who viewed them as one of the many splinter groups within Judaism.
Christians were considered to be dissidents because they stopped practicing traditional rituals and they objected to the cult of the emperor.
Christianity was thought to be one of the worst mystery cults, with immoral and indecent rituals.
The Christian insistence that the pagan gods were evil spirits made them fear that the Greco-Roman gods would withdraw their favor from the Roman Empire.
Christians were trying to destroy the Roman family with their insistence on a new type of kinship.
Local and sporadic persecutions were the norm.
Roman emperors had differing responses to Christianity.
Some Christians were left in peace, while others were ordered to sacrifice their lives to the Roman gods.