Girls in Pakistan were not allowed to get an education because of the Taliban.
The activist for the right of all girls to get a free, quality education was 15 years old when she survived the attempt on her life.
When I survived the attack and woke up in the hospital, my mind was clear that this life is for a cause.
"This is a second life, and it is given to me for something greater than what I was before.
She considers herself lucky to be the voice of all the millions of girls who are denied an education.
Real world results have been produced by Malala's work.
Nigerian girls who escaped from the militant group were given full high school scholarships.
There were children who were refugees in Lebanon.
The school in Gaza will be rebuilt thanks to the donation of the $50,000 from Malala.
She plans to study philosophy, politics, and economics at Oxford University.
"As our politicians are doing nothing for us, nothing for peace, nothing for education, and I want to become prime minister of my country," she says.
What motivates people to act in certain ways is examined in this chapter.
In the face of death threats, Malala decided to act to improve the situation.
Emotions can be produced by learning more about motivated to act and successful reaching goals.
If you've worked hard to do well in a course, you'll be happy to know that there's a website called malala.org.
Motivated people can move toward their goals and lead to deep feelings of satisfaction.
Your motivation to do or not do certain things is strongly influenced by your behavior.
Factors that influence motivation are considered in the study unit.
Complete the learning goal activities to maximize your learning.
Write your own explanations of bold and italic terms.
Explain how your motivation is affected by needs, drives, arousal, and pleasure in one example.
Explain how incentives motivate you to achieve positive outcomes and avoid negative outcomes by explaining the external factor that affects motivation.
If you want to be fit, you might want to go for a run on a cold morning.
Hunger, thirst, and pride motivate you to eat, drink, and study for exams.
One person might feel a strong motivation to exercise to get in better shape, but another person might not.
There are factors of differing strength that motivate, direct, or sustain behavior.
The motivation to perform particular behaviors can be influenced by a wide range of factors.
You can see their behaviors when you look at them.
While you may think you know why people act the way they do, in the 1940s the psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed a "need theory" of you can't see their internal motivation that became very influential.
You can refer back to the examples in this figure as you consider people's motives and behaviors.
Your job doesn't pay enough to meet your needs.
The deficiency motivates the person to engage in behaviors that make up for it and to guarantee that they can pay for housing.
You help satisfy the need by taking a second job.
You don't feel warm in your apartment.
This motivates behaviors that are needed.
The drive is reduced when the need is satisfied.
You and your partner are not normal.
People are motivated by calmness, you stay in and watch to engage in behaviors that fit with their preferred movies in the evening.
The level of arousal is preferring excitement.
You are full after dinner.
You are motivated to engage in behaviors that make them order the flourless chocolate cake anyway because you know how good it will taste.
You can win the tennis behaviors.
People must satisfy basic needs before they can address higher needs for personal growth, such as for self- actualization.
Survival needs can be placed at the bottom of the hierarchy based on the idea that they must be satisfied first.
Personal growth can be placed at the top of the hierarchy.
People must meet their biological needs in order to experience personal growth.
They need to have a good opinion of themselves, they need to feel safe and secure, and they need to feel loved.
In study unit 1.6, you learned that the school views people as trying to fulfill themselves.
Humans are unique because they try to improve themselves.
The person is the focus in considering motivation.
They suggest that the person who wants food is not the person's stomach.
A self-actualized person is living up to their potential and therefore is happy.
A musician must make music, an artist must paint, and a poet must write if he is to be at peace with himself.
Business and education have embraced the need hierarchy.
This order lacks scientific support.
It's possible that self-actualization isn't a requirement for happiness.
There are factors of differing strength that affect behavior.
The A state of biological or social deficiency is more useful than the hierarchy.
Before people can satisfy higher needs, basic survival needs must be met.
According to drive reduction, a need is a deficiency in an area that leads to an internal psychological state.
The drive motivates a person to act in a certain way.
People drink more because of thirsty drinking snacks.
A psychological state that creates arousal is a psychological state that motivates a person to satisfy a need.
A drive is engaged in a behavior to satisfy a need.
The drive of thirst is created by salty snacks because people need water.
The purchase of a beverage is encouraged by the drive of thirst.
The basic biological drives that help people maintain a stable condition are thirst or hunger.
A stable condition is called equilibrium.
Home heating and cooling is controlled by a thermostat.
The thermostat should be set to a certain temperature.
The set point indicates the state of the system.
If the temperature is different from the set point, the furnace or air conditioner will adjust the temperature.
The human body regulates temperature to a set point.
When you are too warm or too cold, brain mechanisms start sweating or shivering to warm the body.
This model is useful for describing hunger and thirst.
An example of how the body works is a thermostat.
Your body is warm or cold.
Your body must return to the set point.
You get warmer as you get closer to the set point.
To get to the set point, you have to be cooler.
If you use this chart, you can determine if you are a sensation seekers.
Pick the number that reflects how you feel about the statement.
Divide your answers by four.
Your score shows if you tend to avoid or seek new sensations.
You can either avoid sensation seeking or prefer a very low level of internal arousal.
You can either avoid sensation seeking or prefer a low level of internal arousal.
You may prefer a high level of internal arousal.
You may prefer a very high level of internal arousal.
Your score is a rough indication of whether you are motivated to engage in activities that increase or decrease your arousal.
It suggests the optimal level of arousal.
You will perform the best in most circumstances at this level.
The hood that a behavior will occur is due to both drive and habit.
If you feel hungry at night, you might have increased brain activity.
Increased heart rate, sweating, or night snack are some of the late- autonomic responses that you eat to satisfy that need for food.
The snack reduces hunger, and that results in more muscle tension.
You might start to eat late at night.
When you don't have enough water or sleep, the drive increases in proportion to the degree of deprivation.
The hungrier you are, the more you want to find food.
The drive causes arousal.
Arousal is caused by a sense of tension in the body.
If you are tired or bored, you can hang out with your friends.
Activities that grab people's attention can be exciting or frightening.
Each person likes a certain level of arousal, which can be low or high.
Each of us has a level of optimal arousal that motivates us to act in certain ways.
A lower level of optimal arousal is what some people have.
These people prefer calmer activities, such as reading, which keep arousal at an optimal lower level.
They like skydiving because it raises arousal to an optimal level.
The law states that performance is poorer.
A person may be overwhelmed by too much arousal.
A person may be bored if they have too little arousal.
The best way to find out what your optimal level of arousal is is to answer the questions in Try It Yourself.
You might think that more arousal will lead to better performance.
It's not necessarily the case.
The law was named after the researchers who formulated it.
Performance improves with arousal up to an optimal point according to this law.
The performance will decline after that point.
The relationship is shaped like an upside- down U.
The law predicts that students perform best on exams when they feel calm.
Too little anxiety can make them lazy, and too much anxiety can affect their thinking ability.
Athletes can fall apart under too much stress, as they have to pump themselves up for their events.