The civilization of the western part of Europe was shaped by the culture of the people of ancient Greece.
The Greeks were the first to explore many of the questions that are still relevant today.
The Greeks tried to understand the world in rational terms.
The birth of philosophy and science was important to many Greeks.
The Greeks developed the concept of politics, and their contributions to literature still fertilize intellectual life today.
No doubt there was an eager buyer during the 200 b.c.e.
The polis was created by the Hellenic period Greeks and made lasting cultural and intellectual achievements.
Macedonian and Greek armies built new cities and kingdoms after defeating the Persian Empire.
They created a vibrant culture by mixing their ideas and traditions with the societies they encountered.
Although there are good harbors on the sea, there are no rivers in Greek life, and the geography shaped it as an enormously divisive force.
The com munications between settlements in Greece were poor.
The Minoan (muh-NOH-uhn) and Mycenaean (migh-suh-NEE-uhn) emerged early in Greek history, but the rugged terrain prevented the growth of a great empire like those of Mesopotamia or Egypt.
The polis is the most common form of government.
The first humans to arrive in Greece were hunter-gatherers, but techniques of agriculture and animal domestication had spread into Greece from Turkey by about 6500 b.c.e., after which small farming communities worked much of the land.
The islands of the Aegean and the western shore of Turkey were included in the home of the Greeks in antiquity.
The large island at the bottom of the map is Crete, the home of the Minoan civilization.
Sparta is located on the Peloponnesian peninsula, which is connected to the rest of mainland Greece by a narrow isthmus.
The Minoan and Mycenaean had artisans and merchants.
The ancient phered was founded.
Birth and development of pipes for bringing in drinking water and sewer to get rid of historical waste.
After the mythical wars king of Crete, Minos, there was a vibrant culture of Persian and Peloponnesian.
The rise of the Minoan society was wealthy and peaceful, to judge by the absence of some of the greatest philosophers in the world.
Minoan political life is known for a king philosophy and a group of nobles.
Minoan art shows women as well as men leading religious activities, watching entertainment, and engaging in athletic contests, but whether this translated into more egali tarian gender roles is unclear.
A different type of society developed on the mainland as Minoan culture flourished.
The society was founded by groups who had migrated in during the period after 2000 b.c.e., and its members spoke an early form of Greek.
Thebes, Athens, and other cities were established by early Mycenaean Greeks.
The king and his warrior aristocracy were at the top of society and the political unit was the kingdom.
The palace was the economic center of the kingdom and was the seat of the king's power.
Palace sholders kept records with a script known as Linear B, which has been deciphered so that information on Mycenaean culture comes through inscriptions and other forms of written records as well as buildings and other objects.
War was common in this society.
The first examples of metal armor in the world can be found in the graves of Mycenaean cities, which were fortified with thick stone wals.
Minoan culture and trade goods were abundant on the Greek mainland.
The Mycenaeans attacked Crete around 1450 b.c.e., possibly in the wake of an earthquake that left Crete vulnerable.
The Mycenae ans ruled the island for about fifty years.
As trade and tribute flowed into the treasuries of various Mycenaean kings, the palaces at Knossos and other cities of the Aegean became grander.
Between 1300 and 1000 b.c.e., prosperity did not bring peace.
The fall of the Minoans and Mycenaeans was part of a collapse of Bronze Age civilization in the eastern Mediterranean, including the end of the Egyptian New Kingdom and the fal of the Hittite Empire.
Changes in warfare and weaponry made foot soldiers the most important factor in battles and reduced the power of kings and wealthy nobles.
Generally translated as "city state," it was the basic political and has been called the "Dark Age" of Greece.
Writing was a casualty of the chaos.
Traditions and stories continued to circulate.
These tales were similar to the epic poems of Meso potamia.
Once writing was reintroduced to Greece, these poems were written down and tributed to an author named Homer.
Greece's Dark Age actually saw two de while a metal corselet velopments that would be central to covers his chest and back, later Greek history and to Greek influ and greave.
His shins are protected by the first of these.
He spread his culture to the islands and to the shores of Anatolia by moving Greek-speaking peoples around the Aegean.