American Psychological Association professional organization representing psychologists in the United States
behaviorism focus on observing and controlling behavior
biopsychology study of how biology influences behavior
biopsychosocial model perspective that asserts that biology, psychology, and social factors interact to determine an individual's health
clinical psychology area of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and other problematic patterns of behavior
cognitive psychology study of cognitions, or thoughts, and their relationship to experiences and actions
counseling psychology area of psychology that focuses on improving emotional, social, vocational, and other aspects of the lives of psychologically healthy individuals developmental psychology scientific study of development across a lifespan
dissertation long research paper about research that was conducted as a part of the candidate's doctoral training
empirical method method for acquiring knowledge based on observation, including experimentation,rather than a method based only on forms of logical argument or previous authorities
forensic psychology area of psychology that applies the science and practice of psychology to issues within and related to the justice system
functionalism focused on how mental activities helped an organism adapt to its environment
humanism perspective within psychology that emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans
introspection process by which someone examines their own conscious experience in an attempt to break it into its component parts
ology suffix that denotes" scientific study of"
personality psychology study of patterns of thoughts and behaviors that make each individual unique
personality trait consistent pattern of thought and behavior
PhD( doctor of philosophy) doctoral degree conferred in many disciplinary perspectives housed in a traditional college of liberal arts and sciences
postdoctoral training program allows young scientists to further develop their research programs and broaden their research skills under the supervision of other professionals in the field
psyche Greek word for soul
psychoanalytic theory focus on the role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior
psychology scientific study of the mind and behavior
PsyD( doctor of psychology) doctoral degree that places less emphasis on research- oriented skills and focuses more on application of psychological principles in the clinical context
sport and exercise psychology area of psychology that focuses on the interactions between mental andemotional factors and physical performance in sports, exercise, and other activities
structuralism understanding the conscious experience through introspection
Summary 1.1 What Is Psychology?
Psychology derives from the roots psyche( meaning soul) and ology( meaning scientific study of). Thus, psychology is defined as the scientific study of mind and behavior. Students of psychology develop critical thinking skills, become familiar with the scientific method, and recognize the complexity of behavior.
1.2 History of Psychology
Before the time of Wundt and James, questions about the mind were considered by philosophers. However, both Wundt and James helped create psychology as a distinct scientific discipline. Wundt was a structuralist, which meant he believed that our cognitive experience was best understood by breaking that experience into its component parts. He thought this was best accomplished by introspection. William James was the first American psychologist, and he was a proponent of functionalism. This particular perspective focused on how mental activities served as adaptive responses to an organism's environment. Like Wundt, James also relied on introspection; however, his research approach also incorporated more objective measures as well. Sigmund Freud believed that understanding the unconscious mind was absolutely critical to understand conscious behavior. This was especially true for individuals that he saw who suffered from various hysterias and neuroses. Freud relied on dream analysis, slips of the tongue, and free association as means to access the unconscious. Psychoanalytic theory remained a dominant force in clinical psychology for several decades. Gestalt psychology was very influential in Europe. Gestalt psychology takes a holistic view of an individual and his experiences. As the Nazis came to power in Germany, Wertheimer, Koffka, and Köhler immigrated to the United States. Although they left their laboratories and their research behind, they did introduce America to Gestalt ideas. Some of the principles of Gestalt psychology are still very influential in the study of sensation and perception. One of the most influential schools of thought within psychology's history was behaviorism. Behaviorism focused on making psychology an objective science by studying overt behavior and deemphasizing the importance of unobservable mental processes. John Watson is often considered the father of behaviorism, and B. F. Skinner's contributions to our understanding of principles of operant conditioning cannot be underestimated. As behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory took hold of so many aspects of psychology, some began to become dissatisfied with psychology's picture of human nature. Thus, a humanistic movement within psychology began to take hold. Humanism focuses on the potential of all people for good. Both Maslow and Rogers were influential in shaping humanistic psychology. During the 1950s, the landscape of psychology began to change. A science of behavior began to shift back to its roots of focus on mental processes. The emergence of neuroscience and computer science aided this transition. Ultimately, the cognitive revolution took hold, and people came to realize that cognition was crucial to a true appreciation and understanding of behavior. 1.3Contemporary Psychology
Psychology is a diverse discipline that is made up of several major subdivisions with unique perspectives. Biological paycholoxy involves the study of the biological bases of behavior. Sensation and perception refer to the area of paychology that is focused on how information from our sensory modeli received, and how this information is transformed into our peneptual experiences of the world arom Cognitive paychology is concerned with the relationship that exists between thought and behavi and developmental psychologists study the physical and cognitive changes that occur throughou lifespan. Personality paychology focuses on individuals' unque patterns of behavior, though emotion Industrial and organizational paychology, health paychology, sport and exercise paye ly forensle paychology, and dinical paychology are all considered applied areas of psychology, to and organizational psychologists apply paychological concepts to 1 settings Health psychologetto for ways to help people live healthier lives, and clinical psychology involves the diagnosis and treatme of paychological disorders and other problematie behavioral patterns, Sport and exercise paychologie study the interactions between thoughts, emotions, and physical performance in sports, exercise, and the
activities forenske paychologists carry out activities related to paychology in association with the pollo
related to learning and memory) are related to
memory formation would be most likely to
1.4 Careers in Paychology Generally, academie careers in paychology require doctoral degrees. However, there are a number of nonacademic career options for people who have master's degrees in paychology. While people will bachelor's degrees in paychology have more limited paychology- related career options, the skills acquired as a function of an undergraduate education in paycholowy are well in a variety of work contexts.
1.1 What is Psychology?
The word Psychology comes from the root words psyche and ology. The prefix “ psyche ” derives from mythology of Psyche, consequently translating to" soul ” in Greek. Theology meaning the scientific study of, together creating the meaning “ to study the soul ”. Specifically, Psychology is the scientific study of how people think, believe, and feels Psychologists study everything about the human experience from the basic workings of the human brain to consciousness, memory, language, reasoning, to personality and mental health.
1.2 History of Psychology
Dating back to the 19th century, the development of Psychology derives from pioneer psychologists Wilhelm Wundt and William James. Wundt, a scientist emphasized structuralism, which focused on understanding the structure, and characteristics of the mind.
James drew from the functionality of cognitive processes, establishing functionalism, which emphasized how mental activities contributed to basic environmental survival. Consequently, new psychologists emerged from these initial findings to establish a foundation of the Gestalt's theory, studies of behaviorism from the works of Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner, and the humanistic branch of psychology from the works of Maslow and Rogers. Psychological perspectives
Structuralism- understanding the conscious experience through introspection. Wilhelm Wundt
Functionalism- focused on how mental activities helped an organism adapt to its environment. William James
Psychoanalytic Theory- focuses on the role of the unconscious in affecting conscious behavior. Sigmund Freud: Founded Psychoanalytic theory, a perspective which dominated clinical psychology for many decades.
Studied" hysteria and neurosis.
Theorized that many of his patients' problems arose from the unconscious mind. Believed that one way the unconscious mind could be accessed was through dream analysis. Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the role of a person's unconscious and early childhood experiences.
Gestalt Psychology- Focuses on humans as a whole rather than individual parts. Kohler, Koffka and Wertheimer were German psychologists who immigrated to the U.S. to escape Nazi Germany.
Based on the idea that although a sensory experience can be broken down into individual parts, how those parts relate to each other as a whole is often what the individual responds to in perception.
Ideas of Gestalt continue to influence research on sensation and perception. Behaviorism- focuses on observing and controlling behavior.
Pavlov: Studied conditioned reflexes in which an animal produced a reflex( unconscious) response to a stimulus( salivating in the presence of food) and, over time, was conditioned to produce the response to a different stimulus( salivating to the sound of a bell) that the experimenter associated with the original stimulus( Food and bell became associated).
John B. Watson is known as the father of behaviorism within psychology.
Believed that objective analysis of the mind was impossible.
Instead he focused on observable behavior and ways to bring that behavior under control.
Today, behaviorism is used in behavioral and cognitive- behavioral therapy.
Skinner: Concentrated on how behavior was affected by its consequences. Studied the
principles of modifying behavior through reinforcement and punishment which he saw as major factors in driving behavior( operant conditioning).
Cognitive Revolution -- By the 1950's, new disciplinary perspectives in linguistics, neuroscience, andcomputer science were emerging.
The mind became the new focus of scientific inquiry.
Noam Chomsky -- Noam Chomsky was very influential in beginning the cognitive revolution.
He believed psychology needed to incorporate mental functioning into its focus in order to fully understand human behavior.
Humanism- emphasizes the potential for good that is innate to all humans.
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Proposed a hierarchy of human needs in motivating behavior.
Maslow asserted that so long as basic needs necessary for survival were met( e.g., food, water, shelter), higher- level needs( e.g., social needs) would begin to motivate behavior.
1.3 Contemporary Psychology
As a result of previous studies, the APA( American Psychological Association) was formed encompassing the furthering study and beneficial advancement of psychological research. From this, various sections of Psychology are branched out forming different studies as well as organizations or schools of Psychological studies. Biopsychology and Evolutionary Psychology- Biopsychology primarily focuses on the bodily functions regarding the nervous, sensory, and motor systems and any possible psychological disorders that may relate to them. Cognitive Psychology- Branch of psychology that focuses on cognition and thoughts. Developmental Psychology- Developmental psychology studies the physical and mental attributes of aging and maturation. This can include how cognitive, social and psychological skills are acquired throughout growth. Personality Psychology- Focuses on behaviors and thought patterns that are unique to each individual. Studies in this field include conscious and unconscious thinking and personality traits.
Social Psychology- How individuals interact and relate with others and how such interactions can affect behavior.
Health Psychology- Branch that focuses on how individual health is directly related or affected by biological, psychological, and sociocultural influences.
Sports and Exercise Psychology- Focus on psychological aspects regarding sports and physical performance. Study includes motivation, performance related anxiety, and general mental well being.
Clinical Psychology- Focuses on diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and problematic patterns of behavior. Study involves clinical therapy and counseling.
Forensic Psychology- Branch of psychology dealing with justice system. Tasks of Forensic Psychologists include assessment of individuals' mental competency to stand in trial, sentencing and treatment suggestions, and advisement regarding eyewitness testimonies. This field of psychology requires a strong understanding of the legal system.
1.4 Careers in Psychology
Occupations in Psychology can range from research and clinical therapy to corporate and marketing. Jobs regarding medical or academic branches of psychology generally require higher forms of education within the field.