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9 -- Part 5: The Islamic World
In the sixth century, groups of Turks gradually appeared across the grassland of Eurasia.
As they made good slave soldiers, they became prime targets for Muslim slave raids.
More and more Muslims were converted to Islam after they realized that they couldn't be captured for slaves.
The first to convert to Sunni Islam was near Bukhara.
Seljuk Turks pushed into Iraq and Syria after they overran Persia.
The caliph became a puppet of the Turk ish sultan on December 18, 1055.
The sedentary lifestyle of the people they governed was taken up by the Turkic elite.
The military strength of the Islamic world was brought about by the Turks.
They helped recover Jerusalem after it was held for nearly a century by the European Crusaders, who had fought to take Christian holy lands back from the Muslims.
They were important in preventing the later sades from doing much.
The Turks led a campaign against Shi'a.
A new expansive dynamic was created by the influx of Turks from 950 to 1100.
Seljuk Turks broke through Byzantine border defenses at the battle of Manzikert in 1071, opening Anatolia to Turkish migration.
The Sultanate of Rum in Anatolia was set up by Seljuk Turks.
Many of the Christians in Anatolia converted to Islam and were able to speak Turkish.
The Mongols arrived in the Middle East in the early 13th century.
The trail of blood and destruction was left by the Mongols after they conquered much of north China.
The areas from Persia through the Central Asian cities of Herat and Samarkand were part of the kingdom of Khwarizm.
The ruler conquered a lot of Persia.
He had the power to execute Chinggis's envoy, and he retaliated with a force of a hundred thousand soldiers.
Many people are said to have died.
After the campaign of 1219-1221, the Persian city of Isfahan was captured by another army.
The decision was made to push farther west in 1251.
The last Abbasid caliph was killed in 1258 when the grandson of Chinggis Khan led an attack on Baghdad.
Damascus had a debt in 1260.
The Mamluk soldiers from Egypt were able to win a major victory at Ayn Jalut in Syria, which has been credited with saving Egypt and the Muslim lands in North Africa.
The desert ecology of the region did not provide enough support for the armies, which required five horses for each soldier.
The Great Khan died in 1260, and the top generals of the Mongols withdrew to Mongolia for the selection of the next Great Khan.
The central Muslim lands were ruled by the descendants of Hulegu for eighty years.
When the Prophet appeared, Arab society consisted of independent Bedouin tribal groups.
He was chosen from elite warrior families who believed in their superiority.
The only criterion for honor was piety, according to the Qur'an.
A basic Muslim doctrine was the idea of social equality.
Muhammad thought about equality among Mus lims alone when he defined social equality.
A sense of pride in ancestry could not be destroyed by a pen.
Muslim society was very patriarchal during the Umayyad period.
The caliph's household was at the top of the hier archy.
Descended from Bedouin tribespeople and composed of warriors, veterans, governing officials, and town settlers, this class constituted the ruling elite.
It was more of a caste than a class because birth continued to determine membership.
The second class in Islamic society was made up of converts.
It was necessary for converts to Islam to be attached to one of the Arab tribes.
Merchants, traders, teachers, doctors, artists, and interpreters of the shari'a came from the Muslim converts.
Some Muslim converts adopted Shi'ism because of second-class citizenship.
Over the centuries, converts to Islam married their Muslim conquerors.
Gradually, the peoples of different ethnic groups were brought together.
They worshipped only one God, Christians, and Zoroastrians.
Many Jews and Christians were appointed to high positions in government because they were well educated.
There were no severe restrictions on Christians and Jews.
When there was a rise of religious loyalties, their social position deteriorated.
Muslims suspected the dhimmis of collaborating with the enemies of Islam.
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