Chapter 14 -- Part 3: Europe and Western Asia in the Middle Ages
Joan, an obscure French peasant girl whose vision and military leadership revived French fortunes and led to victory, is the ultimate French success.
Joan was born in 1412 and grew up in a well-to-do household.
She said she heard voices that belonged to Saint Michael, Saint Catherine, and Saint Margaret.
In 1428, these voices told her that the dauphin of France, Charles VII, had to be crowned and the English had to leave.
Joan secured the support of the dauphin to travel with the French army to the besieged city of Orleans, dressed as a knight.
The English retreated after Joan inspired and led French attacks.
After the victory at Orleans, Charles VII was crowned king.
Joan and the French army were fighting against the English.
The Burgundians captured Joan and sold her to the English.
The trial of Joan was conducted by church authorities, despite the English wanting her eliminated for political reasons.
She was questioned about why she wore men's clothing.
She was condemned as a heretic and burned at the marketplace at Rouen in 1431.
The French army continued its victories without her, and demands for an end to the war increased among the English, who were growing tired of the mounting loss of life and the flow of money into a seemingly bottomless pit.
The English were ejected from Aquitaine by the French.
The English took control of the town of Calais at the end of the war.
The two countries were affected by the war.
The war promoted nationalism in England and France.
The protective walls of stone castles were obsolete due to technological experimentation with gunpowder weaponry.
The development of the English Parliament was stimulated by the war.
Edward III's constant need for money to pay for the war compelled him to summon it many times.
The weight of the armor made it difficult to move.
Both English and French mounted knights wore helmets and breastplates at the beginning of the war, but by the end of it, they only wore helmets and breastplates.
In times of crisis and disaster people of all faiths seek solace in religion, but the official Western Christian Church offered little solace in the 14th century.
The church was weakened by the dispute over who was the legitimate pope.
Avignon was chosen as the pope's permanent residence in 1309 due to pressure from the French monarchy.
This was the beginning of seven papacies in Avignon.
There was controversy among church followers outside France about the popes being French.
The popes focused on bureaucratic and financial matters to the exclusion of spiritual objectives.
Roman citizens demanded an Italian pope who would remain in Rome after one of the French popes died.
The cardinals regretted their decision after Urban VI was elected.
Urban's election was declared invalid by the cardinals because of threats from the Roman mob.
Avignon was set up in opposition to Urban by a French cardinal who took the name Clement VII.
The Great Schism was a situation in which there were two popes.
Clement was recognized by France and England.
Europe lined up behind one or the other.
The common people in Europe were confused about which pope was legitimate.
The schism weakened the religious faith of many Christians and brought disrepute to the church.
The installation of a third pope and a threefold split was the result of a first attempt to heal the schism, which was succeeded by a church council meeting.
The papacy focused on building up its wealth and political power in Italy rather than on the concerns of the whole church in the late fifteenth century.
Many people decided that they would need to rely on their own prayers and actions instead of going to the church for salvation.
The expansion of the Turks was the primary challenge facing the Orthodox Church.
The Ottoman Turks, who were Sunni Muslim, conquered most of the Balkans in the 14th century.
Christianity was no longer the state religion, but it was given civil and religious authority over all Christians in the Ottoman Empire.
The official religion was Islam, but Christians and Jews were free to practice their own religion, so there were advantages to converting.
Most of the Balkans were conquered by the Ottomans by the early 1390s and they were moving toward Hungary.
King Sigismund of Hungary sent a delegation to the king of France asking for help in "protecting Christianity."
The pope proclaimed a crusade against the Ottomans.
The French nobles responded enthusiastically to this opportunity to show off their prowess, because France and England had just made one of the periodic truces.
Several thousand men, mostly Frenchmen but also some Germans, Poles, Spaniards, and others, traveled over land through the Holy Roman Empire, met up with Sigismund and his troops in Buda, and then marched down the Danube River into Turkish-held territory.
The naval fleet was sent by the Venetians.
The Turkish commander waited for Sultan Bayezid I and his forces to come to his aid after the army besieged the fortress.
The French/Hungarian army was attacked by the Ottomans.
Some of the captives were executed in reprisal for the French execution of Turkish prisoners, but the nobles among them were held for a long time, and a few made it back to France.
The battle was depicted in prints and manuscript illustrations by both European and Turkish artists.
Although it was produced nearly two hundred years after the battle, this painting is thought to be more accurate than many others, which include weaponry that would not have been available at the time and large siege machines that the French/Hungarian army never used.
Sultan Bayezid, who is right in the center, leads the Ottoman cavalry and foot soldiers in turbans and high hats down the high cliffs.
An Ottoman soldier leads a French captive away.
The painting was in an official court history.
There was a wave of peasant and urban revolts across Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries.
In 1358, when the French taxation for the Hundred Years' War was too much for the poor, the frustration of the French peasantry exploded in a massive uprising called the Jacquerie.
The toll of the plague and famine in some areas was added to the anger over taxes.
Residents of both urban and rural areas committed terrible destruction when they joined the peasants.
The nobles were on the defensive for several weeks until the upper class came to their defense.
The 1381 English Peasants' Revolt involved tens of thousands of people.
The Black Death reduced the supply of labor and peasants demanded higher wages.
Wages were frozen and workers were bound to their manors.
The atmosphere of discontent was further enhanced by popular preachers who claimed that Christ's teachings were against the rich and poor.
The decades of violence against the weak peasantry had bred hostility and bitterness.
Parliament imposed a poll tax on citizens to fund the war.
The tax imposed a higher burden on the poor than on wealthier people.
After meeting the leaders of the revolt, he tricked them with false promises, and then proceeded to crush the uprising.
The nobility tried to restore the labor obligations of serfdom, but they were not successful and the conversion to money rents continued.
Conflicts involving workers in cities are often blended with peasant revolts.
In Italian, Spanish, and German cities there was unrest.
The peasant and worker were frustrated by the conditions of the time.
Civil wars and invasions by Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims created instability in the ninth and tenth centuries.
Local nobles became the strongest powers against external threats, establishing a form of government known as feudalism.
By the twelfth century rulers in some parts of Europe were able to assert their power over lesser lords and the general population through the development of new institutions of government and legal codes.
The papacy consolidated its power, even though it was sometimes challenged by kings and emperors.
New religious orders were founded and monasteries were important places for learning and devotion.
The Crusades were started after a papal call to take back Jerusalem.
The majority of medieval Europeans were peasants who lived in small villages and worked in their lord's land.
Nobles were a tiny fraction of the total population, but they had a lot of power.
Medieval towns and cities became centers of production.
Towns developed into intellectual and cultural centers as trade brought in new ideas.
Churches and cathedrals were built as symbols of Christian faith and civic pride when universities offered courses of study based on classical models.
Poems, songs, and stories were written in local dialects.
Poor harvests caused an international economic depression and fostered disease in the 14th century.
The Black Death caused huge population losses.
The Hundred Years' War, a schism among rival popes that weakened the Western Christian Church, was one of the difficulties.
The Middle Ages are still fascinating to us today.
We go to medieval fairs, visit castle-themed hotels, watch movies about knights and their conquests, play video games with themes of the Middle Ages, and read stories set in the Middle Ages.
Medieval Europe was not isolated and political and social structures were similar to those in western and eastern Europe.
Most of us wouldn't want to live in the real Middle Ages, when most people worked in the fields all day and even wealthy lords lived in damp and drafty castles.
We don't want to go back to a time when one-third to one-half of all children died before the age of five, and alcohol was the only real pain relief.
The appeal of the Middle Ages is an interesting phenomenon because it stands in stark contrast to the attitude of educated Europeans who lived in the centuries immediately after.
The Middle Ages were forgotten because they were the one to be celebrated.
Explain the significance of each item.
Designed for students, the war examines political, military, social, and economic perspectives and compares how England and France reacted to the conflict.
A survey of the developments traced in this chapter.
A brief introduction to all aspects of medieval village life from the perspective of a woman.
The treatment of the causes and cultural consequences of the disease is the best starting point for study of the great epidemic.
The Byzantine Empire is written for a general audience.
An overview of medieval universities.
Chivalry played a role in promoting violent disorder.
Provides information on the lives of a variety of women, including nuns, peasants, noblewomen, and townswomen.
There is a wide variety of sources that provide evidence about the beliefs and practices of ordinary Christians.
A history of medieval commerce is designed for general readers.
An insightful look at all aspects of Viking society: raiding, trade, religion, art, poetry, and life at home.
Six castles in Syria, France, Spain, Wales, Poland, and England are examined in a six-part interactive documentary.
It is accompanied by a website and a computer game.
An award-winning eight-part documentary series that focuses on the real experiences of certain kinds of medieval people is often portrayed stereotypically.
The historical epic is based on the story of William Wallace, a Scottish nobleman, and has been shown on lists of the best and worst medieval films.
The intense and hostile relationships between Henry II, his wife Eleanor of Aquitaine, and their sons are the subject of two award-winning film versions of the play.
Glenn Close and Patrick Stewart starred in the 2003 version of the 1968 version.
The Middle Ages and medieval society are covered in this medieval-oriented blog.