One must study Arabic gardening to understand Arabic poetry.
The need for tiles was created by the embellishment of Isfahan under Shah Abbas I, as well as the rebuilding of Istanbul after 1463.
The Chinese taught Persian potters how to make skil s. The Persian and Ottoman tile makers were copied by Italian and Austrian potters.
The secular literature of Muslim Spain, rife with references, influenced the lyric poetry of southern France, the troubadours, and the courtly love tradition.
The culture of the Islamic empire underwent many changes between 1400 and 1800.
New movements within Islam were notable for their advances in mathematics, geography, astronomy, and medicine.
The knowledge of earlier Islamic writers and stimulated by Ottoman naval power led to the creation of a map showing all the known world.
The sultan's chief astronomer, Takiyuddin Mehmet, built an ob servatory at Istanbul.
There were improvements in medicine.
The first Ottoman medical school was founded by the chief physician of the empire.
The rulers of al three empires drew legitimacy from their support for Islam among their Muslim subjects.
Efforts were made to define and enforce religious orthodoxy on both sides of the Sunni-Shi'a split.
The original Qizilbash warriors, who had come to be seen as politically disruptive, were suppressed by the Safavids.
Even though the Mughals ruled over both Sunni and Shi'a subjects, they were outnumbered by non-Muslims.
Even though the states tried to limit Sufis, they thrived in the Muslim world.
Sufi orders influenced non-Muslims in India.
The mystical Bhakti movement among Hindus involved dances, poems, and songs.
The new religion of the Sikhs was influenced by Sufis.
A teacher in the 16th century argued that God did not distinguish between Muslims and Hindus but saw everyone as his children.
The caste system was rejected by Sikhs and they forbade alcohol and tobacco, and men did not cut their hair.
Sikh men armed themselves to defend their communities in northwest India, where the Sikh movement was most successful.
None of the three Islamic empires adopted the printing press or went through the kind of cultural expansion associated with it in China and Europe.
The Ottomans did not allow the printing of books in Turkish or Arabic.
The tech nology spread even after Jesuit missionaries printed Bibles in Indian languages, despite the fact that printing was not banned in Mughal India.
The Islamic authorities in each of the empires did not want to see writings that could upset society.
The Islamic world had a new social convention in the mid-fifteenth century.
Yemen Sufis, who sought a trancelike concentration on God to the exclusion of everything else, found that cof fee helped them stay awake.
Sufis were not professional holy men but were employed as merchants.
Coffee was used as a business lubricant because of its use for religious purposes.
Merchants took the Yemenite practice to Mecca.
Coffee drinking spread from Mecca to Egypt and Syria.
Two Syrians opened a coffeehouse in Istanbul.
A crowded coffeehouse is depicted in a miniature.
Coffeehouses provided a place for men to talk and have fun, and a man could entertain his friends cheaply and more informally than at home.
Coffee houses were a threat to public health, order, and morality according to some officials.
The coffee trade was a major source of profit for local notables.
Coffeehouses represented a revolution in Islamic life because they were no longer confined to the home.
The rulers of the Islamic were allowed to play a role.
Coffee and coffeehouses spread to Europe in the 17th century.
Muslims had long practiced a religious toleration that was not known in Christian Europe.
The lives of Christians and Jews were guaranteed by Muslim rulers who paid a poll tax.
In the case of the Ottomans, this tolerance was extended to the Christians and Jews who had been living under Muslim rule for centuries but also to the Serbs, Bosnians, Croats, and other Orthodox Christians in the newly conquered Balkans.
The Ot toman conqueror of Constantinople, Mehmet, was the official representative of the Greek population.
Non-Muslims are recognized as functioning parts of the Ottoman society and economy.
The Jews in the Rhine land, Moravia, and Hungary were urged to move to Turkey by the Rabbi in 1454 because of the good conditions there.
A lot of people migrated to Ottoman lands.
Many Sephardic Jews migrated to the Ottoman Empire after the expulsion of the Jews from Spain.
Many Ar menian Christians in the Caucuses seem to have embraced Islam, more so than others, despite the efforts of the Safavid authorities to convert them.
The Christian Church retained its strength despite the fact that they were prominent merchants in long distance trade.