Chapter 21 -- Part 1: Continuity and Change in East Asia
The emperor received foreign emissaries and his portrait was part of a large set that hung in the hall.
The four centuries from 1400 to 1800 were a time of growth and change in East Asia.
Both China and Japan ended up with expanded territories after the war.
The age of exploration brought New World crops to the region, leading to increased agricultural output and population growth.
Foreign trade and new religions were brought about by it.
The Japanese invasions of Korea in the late 16th century led to a war between China and Japan.
The native Ming Dynasty brought an end to the rule of the Mongols in China.
China saw agricultural reconstruction, commercial expansion, and the rise of a vibrant urban culture.
The non- Chinese Manchus founded the Qing Dynasty in the early 17th century after the Ming Dynasty fell into disorder.
The other multiethnic empires of the early modern world include the Ottoman, Russian, and Habsburg Empires.
The eighteenth century was a time of peace and prosperity in China.
Civil war began in the Japanese islands in the 15th century.
The world seemed to have turned upside down when Hideyoshi became the supreme ruler at the end of the 16th century.
He didn't pass on his power to an heir.
The power was taken by Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Japan restricted contact with the outside world and social mobility under the Tokugawa Shogunate.
As agricultural productivity increased, Japan flourished.
An era of peace and prosperity was ushered in by the founding of the Ming Dynasty.
Fiscal, military, and political problems beset the Ming government by the beginning of the 17th century.
The founder of the Ming Dynasty began his life in poverty during the last decades of the Yuan Dynasty.
When he was only sixteen years old, his father, oldest brother, and his wife all died, leaving two penniless boys with three bodies to bury.
The monastery accepted him as a novice because he had no relatives to turn to.
The monks sent Zhu out to beg for food because they were short of funds.
He spent three or four years in central China.
He didn't learn to read until he returned to the monastery.
The Chinese dynasty ruled from 1368 to 1644.
The Red Turbans rose in rebellion against the government a few years later.
Manichaean ideas about the incompatibility of the forces of good and evil as well as the cult of the Maitreya Buddha, who according to believers would in the future bring his paradise to earth to relieve human suffering, were used in Red Turban teachings.
When the temple where he was living was burned down, he joined the rebels and rose quickly.
Ming China, ca.
Zhu and his followers eventually became brilliant generals.
In 1356, he took the city of Nanjing and made it his base.
Beijing was taken by his armies just days before the emperor and his followers left.
The emperor of the Bright Dynasty was declared by him at forty years old.
He is known as Taizu or the Hongwu emperor.
Taizu wanted to help the poor.
He ordered a full-scale registration of cultivated land and population so that the burdens of government taxes and compulsory labor could be assessed more fairly.
He tried persuasion as well.
He told the villagers to be obedient to their parents, live in harmony with their neighbors, and refrain from evil.
Taizu retained some Yuan practices despite being anti-Mongol.
The administrative layer between the central government and the prefectures was set up as provinces.
Both military and artisan households had a hereditary service obligation.
There were garrisons along the northern border and near the capital.
Each garrison was given a tract of land that the soldiers could cultivate to grow their own food.
The system was supposed to provide the Ming with a large but inexpensive army, but it wasn't up to par.
Garrisons were not always selfsufficient.
Like earlier dynasties, the Ming turned to non Chinese northerners for much of its armed forces.
Taizu humiliated men of education in court.
It is most likely that he suffered from a mental illness because of his erratic behavior.
Taizu made it illegal for literary men to turn down appointments or resign from office when they began to avoid official life.
After the death of the empress, no one could calm him.
Thousands of Taizu officials were killed because they were found to have taken too long in their handling of paperwork for the grain tax.
Thousands of people connected to the chancellor were executed in 1380 after Taizu concluded that he was going to be assassinated.
Taizu acted as his own chancellor, dealing directly with the heads of departments and ministries.
The Yongle emperor is called Chengzu.
He was also a military man.
One of Taizu's younger sons, he took the throne by force from his nephew and often led troops into battle.
Chengzu was willing to use terror to keep officials in line.
Chengzu decided to move the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which was his own base as a prince, during his reign.
Beijing was a planned city.
Like Chang'an in Sui and Tang times, it was arranged like a set of boxes within boxes and built on a north-south axis.
The main outer walls were over forty feet high.
The Imperial City had government offices and the palace itself had close to ten thousand rooms.
The palace complex in Beijing was built in the early 15th century when the capital was moved to Beijing.
Audience halls and other important state buildings are arranged on a north-south axis with courtyards between them, where officials would stand during ceremonies.
The areas around Beijing weren't as productive as those around Nanjing.
To supply Beijing with grain, the Yuan Grand Canal was widened, deepened, and supplied with more locks and dams.
The 15,000 boats and the 160,000 soldiers of the transport army who pulled loaded barges from the towpaths along the canal became the lifeline of the capital.
If the son of the empress predeceased his father, Taizu had ordered that the heir should be the son of the empress.
As one emperor followed another, the flaws in this system became apparent.
Secretaries and eunuchs were used to manage the paperwork because Taizu abolished the position of chancellor.
Eunuchs were captured as boys and castrated.
Society considered eunuchs the basest of servants.
The establishment of the eunuch became large.
The eunuch bureaucracy grew as large as the civil service by the late fifteenth century.
By the mid-sixteenth century seventy thousand eunuchs were in service throughout the country, with ten thousand in the capital.
There was a lot of tension between the two agencies.
The eunuch-run secret service was set up by Chengzu in 1420.
Eunuch control of vital government processes became a problem.
In order to get the emperors to make reforms, many officials risked their lives by speaking out.
In 1519, when an emperor announced plans to make a tour of the southern provinces, over a hundred officials staged a protest by kneeling in front of the palace.
The emperor had the officials flogged and 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 Rarely did such acts change an emperor's mind.
The educated public did not propose or even imagine alternatives to imperial rule.
High officials had to find ways to work around emperors, but they were not able to put in place institutions that would limit the damage an emperor could do.
The early Ming emperors feared that the Mongols would form another great military machine and so they held them in awe.
It was put together two centuries earlier.
Groups of Mongols could and did raid even though they were never united in a pan-Mongol federation.
In 1449 the khan of the western Mongols captured the Chinese emperor, and in 1550 Beijing was surrounded by the forces of the khan of the Mongols.
Fear of anything that might strengthen the Mongols made officials reluctant to grant any privileges to the leaders.
They wanted the different groups of Mongols to only trade through the formal tribute system.
Trade was liberalized in 1570.
The construction of the Great Wall and closer relations between Mongolia and Tibet were two important developments.
The wall goes from northeast of Beijing into Gansu province.
There is still debate about whether the wall did enough to protect China from the Mongols.
Tibetan Buddhism was spread among the Mongols.
The major Buddhist monasteries in Tibet were dominated by competing leaders who would help them when they needed it.
Altan Khan, the khan, declared Tibetan Buddhism to be the official religion of the Mongols in 1577.
The khan was given the title of King of Religion by the Dalai Lama.
When the third Dalai Lama's reincarnation was found to be the great-grandson of Altan Khan, the ties between Tibet and Mongolia became even stronger.
The growing influence of Buddhism among the Mongols seemed to be a positive development, as Buddhist emphasis on nonviolence was expected to counter the Mongols' love of war.
In this era, Europe had a lot of social barriers.
The emperor's absolute power was limited by no hereditary aristocracy.
China had no aristocracy, but it did have an elite whose status was determined by their education.
China's merchants did not become politically articulate as a class of the well-to-do.
The scholars who were taught by Confucianism should help the ruler run the state.
Merchants tried to marry into the scholar class in order to rise in the world.
The official Jiang Shunfu arranged to have his portrait painted and followed by two boy attendants, one holding a lute.
The rank of an official was visible by the badges he wore on his robes.
Jiang had a first-rank post in the civil service hierarchy.
The educated men were eager to enter the government despite the harsh and arbitrary ways in which the Ming emperors treated their civil servants.
The teachings of the twelfth-century Neo-Confucian scholar, who was called joo shee, were declared orthodox when they were revised.
To become an official, candidates had to pass a number of exams.
A series of written tests held at the prefecture, province, and capital levels in China to select men to become officials.
Boys from well-to-do families had an advantage because their families could start their education with a tutor at a young age, though less expensive schools were becoming available as well.
For generations, families that pursued other careers, such as merchants or physicians, had more opportunities than ever to run schools for their members.
Most of those who attended school stayed only a few years, but students who seemed most promising moved on to advanced schools where they practiced essay writing and studied the essays of men who had succeeded in the exams.
Hundreds if not thousands of candidates took the exams at the prefecture level.
Candidates would be given places to sit and write in the government compound.
The capital and provincial exams were given over a week.
Candidates wrote essays on classics in the first session.
They had to show that they could draft state papers.
It was a good way to prepare for policy questions and state paper exercises.
The local events included the provincial exams.
Ten thousand candidates descended on the city and filled up its hostels.
Candidates were searched before they were admitted and no written material could be taken into the cells.
Anyone caught wearing a cheat-sheet was thrown out of the exam and banned from the next session.
During the sessions candidates had time to write rough drafts of their essays, correct them, and then copy neat final versions.
The tension was high.
The clerks assigned numbers to the papers after they were handed in.
The 2 to 10 percent who passed could not celebrate because they had to start preparing for the capital exams a year later.
The traditional herbs like this one would have had sketches of their uses andmedicinal value.
The daughter of a doctor was the granddaughter of Tan Yuxian, who married into her home to learn medicine.
The social standing of the family was raised considerably when at least two of their sons passed the civil service examination and became officials.
The grandparents wanted to give their medical knowledge to someone else, and they decided to teach it to her because she was very bright.
Tan was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 When her grandmother had time, she asked her granddaughter to explain certain passages.
When her grandmother was sick, she gave her a notebook of prescriptions and instructions on how to make medicines.
After becoming seriously ill, Yunxian dreamed of her grandmother telling her what page of a book would cure her.
She began her medical career after she recovered.
Most of the patients she treated were women with chronic complaints and not critical illnesses.
The Chinese considered many of the women's complaints to be women's complaints.
Some of the ailments that men could suffer from were coughs, nausea, insomnia, diarrhea, rash, and swellings.
Other literati physicians prescribed herbal medications as well.
Moxibustion is the technique of burning dried artemisia at specified points on the body with the goal of stimulating the circulation of life energy.
Male physicians couldn't perform moxibustion on women because the physician had to touch the patient.
Working women were included in Yunxian's patients, and he thought that their problems often sprang from overwork.
A woman came to her because she had had vaginal bleeding for three years.
The woman said she worked all day with her husband at the kiln.
The woman was given pills to replenish her Yin energies after her diagnosis was overwork.
A boatman's wife came to her with a complaint.
The doctor advised the woman to take some time off after she told him that she worked in the wind and rain.
In another case, Yunxian explained to a servant girl that she had gone back to work too soon after suffering a wind damage fever.
If a woman reported that her mother-in-law had scolded her or that her husband had recently brought a concubine home, Tanxian believed that negative emotions were the source of their problems.
Two upper-class women lost their babies because they hid their anger and caused fire to turn inward.
She died at the age of ninety-three.
Civil servants and most of the rest of the population lived in the same patterns that had been established in earlier periods.
Almost everyone married, and the family remained central to most people's lives.
People's lives were shaped by where they lived and the type of work they did.
Large towns and cities became islands of sophistication in the vast sea of rural villages.
Silks and porcelains were manufactured by small businesses in the urban areas.
Cotton and silks were produced in the southeast, as well as grain and salt trades, and silver.
When publishing houses put out large numbers of books aimed at general audiences, printing reached the urban middle classes.
To make their books attractive in the marketplace, entrepreneurial book publishers commissioned artists to illustrate them.
More and more books were published in the language the people spoke, especially short stories, novels, and plays.
The first appearance of the full-length novel was during the Ming period.
Story cycles developed by oral storytellers over the course of several centuries heavily influenced the plots of the early novels.
Competing publishers added new illustrations or commentaries to their editions of these novels.
The Chinese found a lot of things besides reading.
Both men and women took up pipes once tobacco was introduced from the Americas.
The plays were very popular.
Children would be purchased and trained to sing and perform in troupes.
These groups of actors are employed at all the banquets, and when they are called they are prepared to play any of the ordinary plays.
The host at the banquet is usually presented with a volume of plays, and he chooses one or several of them.
The young woman looks up at the moon as her maid looks at the reflection in the pond.
The young man scales the wall.
Twenty-one woodblock prints were created to illustrate the play.
In central and south China, most of the calories were supplied by rice.
Farmers began to stock the rice paddies with fish, which fertilized the paddies, destroyed mosquitoes, and enriched the diet.
Cotton, sugarcane, and indigo were grown by farmers.
For more than one harvest per year from a single field, new methods of crop rotation were allowed.
Repopulation and colonization of war devastated regions was promoted by the Ming rulers.
Immigrants to these areas were exempt from taxation for many years.
The agricultural revolution was sparked by the regrowth of trees.
50 million trees were planted in the Nanjing area in order to produce lumber for the construction of a maritime fleet.
Each family in the province had to plant two hundred mulberry, jujube, and persimmon trees.
84 million fruit trees were planted by peasants in central China in the 13th century.
According to historians, 1 billion trees were planted during Taizu's reign.
There were permanent shops in larger towns and periodic markets in smaller towns.
They sold essential goods such as pins, matches, oil for lamps, candles, paper, incense, and tobacco to country people from the surrounding hamlets.
Markets usually have essential goods such as lamp oil and matches, as well as the services of moneylenders, pawnbrokers, and craftsmen.
He wrote about the pleasures of his youth in later years.
A Swiss visitor's account of the London theater scene in 1599.
He will not loosen his tongue until his hosts sit quietly, hold their breath, and give him their attention.
He will come to an abrupt halt if he spots the servants whispering, or if his audience yawns or shows signs of fatigue.
He will talk until past midnight, still keeping up an unhurried flow, while the servants clean the tables, trim the lamp, and serve tea in cups of porcelain.
His pacing and his inflexions are suited to the situation, and lay bare the very body and fibre of the matter.
If one plucked all the other storytellers alive by the ear and made them listen to him, they would be struck dumb with wonder and give up the ghost on the spot.
At two in the afternoon, London has two plays running in different places, competing with each other, and those which play best get most spectators.
Everyone has a good view of the playhouses, which are constructed so that they play on a raised platform.
The seating is more comfortable in places where it is more expensive.
If he wants to sit in the most comfortable seats, he will have to pay another penny, but if he wants to stand, he will only have to pay one English penny.
During the performance food and drink are carried around the audience so that one can get some refreshment.
The fiscal, military, and political problems of the Ming government began in the 1590s.
One region after another was ravaged by epidemics and ods.
A "little ice age" brought a drop in average temperatures that shortened the growing season and reduced harvests.
In areas of serious food shortages, gangs of army deserters and laid-off soldiers began searching the countryside for food.
Hard-pressed farmers joined the gangs to survive after they stole all the grain.
The last thing people needed was more taxes, that's why the government tried to increase them.
There was a sudden drop in the supply of silver.
The use of silver ingots as money came about as a result of the paper money that had been circulating.
Much of the silver came from either Japan or the New World and entered China as payment for the silk and porcelains exported from China.
Silver imports dropped when there was disruption of trade in Japan and the Philippines.
Real rents rose in China because of deflation.
There were riots among urban workers.
The Yellow River was flooded in 1642 when a group of rebels cut the dikes.
The death toll was increased by a disease.
The beginning of a new dynasty was opened when the last Ming emperor took his own life after rebels entered Beijing.
The next dynasty was founded by non- Chinese people who were descended from the Jurchens.
The Manchus began expanding their territories in the late 16th century and founded the CHING Dynasty, which brought peace and prosperity.
The borders of the empire were extended into the Uighur, Tibetan, and Mongol regions, creating a multiethnic empire that was larger than any earlier Chinese dynasty.
The Manchus ruled China from 1644 to 1911.
Manchuria is the northeast of modern-day China and is where the Manchus lived during the Ming period.
In the southern part of Manchuria, the Manchus lived in close contact with many different people.
They were hunters, fishers, and farmers.
They were excellent horsemen and archers and had a strong social structure with elites and slaves.
Slaves were usually acquired through capture.
Manchu villages were often at odds with each other over resources, and men did not leave their villages without carrying bows and arrows or swords.
There were groups of nomadic Mongols who lived in tents.
The cultural influence on the rest of Asia was caused by the sheer size of the Qing Empire.
The rise of the Manchus was credited to Nurhaci.
He expanded the territories of the Manchus.
The new social basis for his armies in units called Each banner was made up of a set of military companies and included the families and slaves of the soldiers.
Each company had a hereditary captain.
When new groups were defeated, they were distributed with several banners.
The Manchus were invited to China by the general who was near the eastern end of the Great Wall when the rebels captured Beijing.
The Manchus want to liberate Beijing.
The Manchus occupied Beijing after the Great Wall gates were opened.
When the Manchus made clear that they wanted to take the throne and conquer the rest of the country, they joined forces with many other Chinese generals.
China was once again under alien rule.
Many Chinese men refused to comply with the Manchus' order to shave the front of their heads and braid them in the Manchu style.
The slaughter of defiant cities was ordered by Manchu commanders.
Policies and institutions were put in place to give China a break from war and disorder.
The examination system was taken over by the Ming Dynasty.
Population growth took off after peace was achieved.
Between 1700 and 1800, the Chinese population doubled from 150 million to 300 million.
Global warming that extended the growing season, expanded use of New World crops, and slowing of the spread of new diseases were some of the factors that contributed to population growth in the 18th century.
Some scholars argue that the standard of living in China's most developed regions was comparable to Europe's and that the standards of the most developed regions of Europe were not as good.
Life expectancy, food consumption, and even facilities for transportation were all the same.
For more than a century, China was ruled by only three rulers, each of them committed to making the Qing Dynasty a success.