China was campaigning against enemies in all directions.
The Qiang were considered barbarian tribesmen by the Shang.
Most of the material culture of the Shang was absorbed by the Zhou, who were between the capital and the Qiang.
The cultural and political advances of the Shang rulers were maintained by their successors.
The Zhou period is the first one in which transmitted texts are plentiful.
The victory of just and noble warriors over decadent courtiers was achieved through the use of early Chinese books.
The documents show that the Zhou recognized the Shang as occupying documents, speeches and historical accounts.
The Duke of Zhou, the "cultured" or "literate" king who expanded the Zhou domain, is one of the three early Zhou rulers who are given the most praise.
The Zhou kings sacrificed to their ancestors, but also to Heaven.
According to the documents, Heaven gives the king a mandate only if he rules in the interests of the people.
He gave the theory to the Zhou kings.
It was a central feature of Chinese political ideology during the early Zhou period.
The early Zhou rulers did not try to rule all their territories directly.
They sent relatives and trusted subordinates to establish walled garrisons.
The domains became hereditary fiefs when a vassal passed his position on to a son.
Each lord appointed an officer to serve him.
These posts and their associated titles became hereditary as well.
Regional lords became so powerful that the king was powerless to control them.
After one of his sons was put on the throne, the capital was moved to a location just south of the Yellow River in the central plains.
The revived Zhou Dynasty never regained control over its vassals, and China never regained a strong central authority.
One state would not attack another that was in mourning for its ruler; during battles one side would not attack before the other side had time to line up; ruling houses were not wiped out so that successors could continue.
China entered a period of nearly constant conflict after niceties were abandoned.
The Zhou period had strong attitudes and privileges.
At the upper reaches of the society, these men sacrificed a lot to serve ties in the family aristocracy.
Songs used in court religious ceremonies are provided by Chinese poetry.
Some people had a glimpse of what life was like in folk songs.
Folk songs depict a more informal pattern of courting than did in later China.
Don't break our mulberry trees.
I am afraid of my brothers.
I dread my brothers' words.
We have no place.
The great mandate is coming to an end.
Nothing to look forward to.
The court odes that reveal attitudes of the aristocracy are in this song.
Women topple them.
They are owls and kites.
That leads to ruin.
It is made by women.
The practice of concubinage was one of the reasons why women were distrusted in politics.
Rulers accumulated large numbers of concubines who were lower in rank than their wives and thus would have children with several women.
The common perception was that women were incapable of taking a disinterested view of the larger good, which led to much scheming for favor among the various sons and their mothers.
After 500 b.c.e., social and economic change increased.
Over north China, cities began appearing.
An outer wall was built around the palaces and ancestral temples of the ruler to protect the artisans, merchants, and farmers who lived outside the inner wall.
descriptions of military confrontations in this period include accounts of sieges launched against these walled citadels.
Iron technology in the early Zhou Dynasty allowed some people to become very rich.
Some people had more power than others because of Zhou's status and political favor.
The basis for social inequality began in the fifth century.
People who grew wealthy from trade began to compete for control of the state.
The rulers who wanted trade to bring prosperity to their states welcomed traders and began casting coins.