The basic processes of cognitive psychology are found in lower ani Problem Solving mals, so we may wonder what separates humans from animals.
The human brain can solve problems and make decisions.
The development of complex Thinking and Language language sets us apart from other species.
One of the more controversial views of intelligence is the measurement of intelligence.
The history of intelligence testing shows how the study of a topic changes over time.
In some cases he made the determination quickly, while in others it took longer.
Mental processes are inferred from observable behaviors by cognitive psychologists.
The study of images is one way in which cognitive psychologists draw inferences about thinking.
According to the subfield of psychology, they visualize events and objects to answer questions.
The study of higher the experience of seeing even though the event or object is not actually viewed, can mental processes such as thinking, activation brain areas responsible for visual perception, such as the occipital lobes.
The geometric figures were different in orientation to each other.
Mental rotation is something to give on.
Write down your answer before you read further.
Participants took longer to decide whether the object was the same or different when it had been changed a lot.
The longer people take to return the configuration to its original orientation, the greater the degree of rotation.
It is not a legitimate part of science to inferences about unseen mental processes.
Physicists can't observe gravity directly, even though they study its effects, because they can't use the Earth's sediment layers to infer past events.
We can use visual images to store information in our memory and answer questions similar to the ones we asked before, as well as plan a course of action.
The following examples show how imagery can be used in sports.
We need to describe the size of the land.
There are different areas of the brain that are activated by sight, hearing, speaking, and thinking.
The occipital lobes are responsible for processing visual information.
Sport psychologists use visual imagery to improve attention and performance in a number of sports and juries.
The control and execution of movement can be improved by mental practice, as shown by measures of blood flow in the brain.
Images play a role in thinking, but not all thinking involves imagery.
The formation and use of concepts is a large part of it.
Concepts play a role in thinking.
It's easier to understand the size of an acre if you see a football field without the end zones.
Concepts reduce the load on memory and allow us to make predictions about our world.
Imagine driving a car for the first time.
Predicting how the car operates, knowing the type of fuel needed, understanding what happens when you put the key in the ignition, and locating several controls are all things you can do.
Rules that tell us what is and what is not an instance of the concept can be used to classify something as an example of a concept.
The rules work well for defining a square, a closed two-dimensional figure with four equal sides connected at 90-degree angles.
The rules we used need to be figured out by you.
The first and fourth examples show the concept; the second and third examples don't show it.
Write down the rules you think define the concept.
One way to learn a new concept is to use trial-and-error learning, where you suggest a preliminary idea and then test it on new examples.
This approach has been used in laboratory studies.
Were you able to identify the experiments?
You might have noticed that this laboratory-based example is not like the ones you see in everyday life because it is more complicated and not defined by neat sets of rules.
List the properties that could be used to classify an animal as a cat.
It is possible to see that listing a set of properties as the rules for defining a concept doesn't always work out.
Participants in laboratory research create a list of proper ties to form concepts.
We compare a new object to a prototype.
Think of a bird.
When people rate the degree to which various fruits represent the concept "fruit", they tend to rate orange and apple as the best exam ples; tomato and avocados were least likely to serve as the prototype of a fruit.
You probably didn't think of a chicken or penguin.
New objects are classified according to their similarity to our prototypes.
There are often degrees of similarity between prototypes and concepts in a concept category.
The concepts we encounter and use every day are not based on a specific set of properties.
Our concepts are organized into a hierarchy and do not exist independently.
"recliner," "rocking chair," "desk chair," and so forth are some of the levels below this heading.
Concepts reduce the load on our memory because we don't have to remember everything.
We use memory to solve problems that are related to problems we have seen before.
Some problem-solving methods that have stood the test of time can be used when a problem is not similar to past problems.
The act of determining and executing how to proceed from a given state to a desired goal state is called problem solving.
Sometimes major problems and occasionally minor problems are encountered on a daily basis.
You might find that the wheels of your car spin on the ice, that your luggage breaks as you board a flight, or that your computer crashes at the most inconvenient time.
Some problems are easy to solve, others require a lot of effort, and some may be unsolvable.
A clearly specified beginning state, a set of clearly specified tools or techniques for finding the solution, and a clearly specified solution state are some of the characteristics of well- defined problems.
There is a degree of uncertainty about the starting point, needed operations, and final product.
The criteria for judging the responses to such problems are not always simple and straight forward.
If you have faced a similar problem in the past, you can retrieve the solution from your memory and apply it to the current problem.
If the problem is new and there is no solution in long-term memory, you can use several strategies to attack it.
A model that can be used to understand human thinking has been provided by high-speed computers.
To use the computer as a model of human thought, researchers need to know what human beings do when they solve problems.
There are two general approaches to solving problems that can be programmed into a computer.
If a solution exists, you can use a strategy to solve the problem.
There is an opportunity for you to solve a problem that involves the use of arithm.
As you try to solve the problem, pay atten requires you to evaluate everything you do.
Finding a solution to our anagram problem is more difficult than using anagrams.
You should note that the material found in these five letters can be arranged in 120 different ways.
It's not preceding chapters.
It can be time consuming if we are told what to do to reach a solution.
If you spent 1 second on each letter, you could solve the anagram in 2 minutes.
Most people solve the anagram in less than 2 minutes, so they probably use a method other than an algorithm.
Procedures can't be set up in advance to guarantee a solution.
Some problems are so large that they are impractical.
It would take centuries to examine all possible arrangements of the chess pieces, so chess players don't rely on algorithms.
If you were trying to solve the anagram, you may have decided that the educated guesses should be separated.
It might be a good idea to separate the V and the S of thumb for solving problems because this combination of letters does not occur frequently in English words, and on the other that are not guaranteed to yield hand, SO is a common combination.
Heuristics do not guarantee solutions, but they make more efficient use of time.
It's possible to lead to quick solutions or to no solution at all.
ObstaCles anD aIDs tO prOblem sOlvIng.
Researchers compared the problem solving of experts and non experts and found that experts know more about the problem than non experts.
Experts know how to collect and organize information and are better at recognizing patterns in the information they gather.
Researchers can help us improve our problem-solving capabilities and avoid obstacles.
One way to study problem solving is to ask people to think.
A researcher can follow a person'slem-solving efforts.
Using this technique, psychologists have found that problem solvers can break problems down into sub goals, which they can attack and solve one at a time.
The chances of reaching a solution can be increased by these intermediate sub goals.
Nine adults and two children want to cross a river using a raft that will carry either one adult or two children.
The raft cannot be pulled across the river by a rope.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
This isn't an easy problem.
It is difficult to solve a large problem in a single swoop because effective problem solvers break it down into smaller sub goals.
You need to know how many crossing are required to get one adult across the river.
It takes four crossing to get one adult across the river and back to the dock.
One of the children can return the boat if they cross the river.
An adult can cross alone if the child returns the boat.
It will take 36 trips to move nine adults across the river if you repeat the sequence of four trips eight more times.
There are 37 trips needed to move the two children across.
To solve the problem, the first thing you need to do is identify the sequence that is needed to cross the river, and the second thing you need to do is determine if the sequence can be repeated.
You need to break the problem into manageable sub goals to find the solution.
One example of functional fixedness is Maier's Bias toward the use of a two-string problem.
There are two strings hanging from the ceiling.
A chair and a set of pliers are in the room.
The strings are too far apart to allow a person to grasp them and tie them together.
Most of the solutions tried by participants in the study were unsuccessful.
Think about it for a while.
The solution to this problem is to tie the pliers to the end of one string and then catch it with a pendulum and tie it to the other string.
The solu tion may seem obvious now, but only 39% of participants solved the problem in 10 minutes.
They didn't see that the pliers could be used in an unusual way.
Imagine that you are in a small room.
A box of wooden kitchen matches, a piece of string, a candle, and thumbtacks are on the floor.
There isn't an elec tricity in the room.
The candle should be mounted on the wall using the materials in the figure.
Before reading anything else, write down your solution to the problem.
The solution is presented at the end of the chapter.
Many people fail to solve this problem because of functional fixedness.
People trying to solve this problem often fail to see the box as a support for the candle because the matches are shown in the box.
Problem solvers can experience difficulty in representing a problem and may rely on common uses of objects.
It is possible to restrict ourselves to certain problem-solving approaches even if they are not the most effective.
In these problems, the goal is to get the specified amount of water by using a group of three jugs.
After the first warm-up problem, the solution is B minus the material describing problem A minus 2C: fill jug B, then pour enough water to fill jug A, and fill jug C twice.
A basic solution works for Problems 2 through 6.
There is an easier way to solve Problems 7 and 8.
One member of the group can be solved with less steps if they first fill Jug A and then fill Jug C. There are some possible solutions to your problem.
There are solutions to the problems we have described.
Our thinking in problem solving doesn't just involve solving problems.
Sometimes we are asked to consider the advantages and disadvantages of a course of action.
There is no problem to be solved here, but there is a decision to be made.
We make hundreds of decisions each day.
Some of the decisions are easy.
The brain is able to process a lot of information quickly.
Heuristics can lead to good decisions, but they can also lead to bad decisions.
Some of our mistakes are caused by the same principles that allow us to make easy judgements.
Imagine that you see a red car that was involved in an accident.
If you were asked to estimate the number of crimes in which people plead not guilty by reason of insanity, it is likely that you would overstate it.
We look at some of the most important heuristics in this section.
You have to suggest other sets of numbers that follow the rule.
The objects are pointing at the top of the page.
The arrangement should be moved to the bottom of the page.
Changing the arrangement so that no full glass is next to another full one and no empty glass is next to another empty one is possible by handling and moving only one glass.
To get the pattern at the right, move only two pennies in the left diagram.
When we try to solve problems, we face obstacles.
If you want to check the answers at the end of the chapter, try each one of the problems.
Both series follow the rule.
You would be wrong if you said that the rule requires that the numbers increase by 2.
A majority of participants in a study confidently stated an incorrect rule.
The correct rule is that the series must have three positive numbers.
Gambling bets can be influenced by hypotheses.
The tendency to seek instances that confirm our beliefs, solu numbers or colors is an important aspect of our problem-solving.
They try to avoid instances that disconfirm their hypotheses.
The confirmation bias is shown in the following story.
The goal of the game was to find a number between 1 and repeated sequence and reverse 10,000.
The teacher said it was between 5,000 and 10,000 in the short run.
As adults, we don't commit to one hypothesis, so we tend to seek confirmation.
Ted, a college graduate, is very careful about details.
He doesn't seem to have much creativity and rarely tells jokes.
He will carry it out according to the rules if given a task.
You are looking for a match between Ted and the prototype of an accountant or a writer.
The number of accountants and writers in a group did not change predictions of Ted's occupation.
Participants were swayed by the similarity of Ted's personality characteristics to the stereotype of a writer, who may be perceived as creative, tolerant, and open to experience.
Ted's profile sounds like one of the accountants we associate with.
The rule of thumb is that the similarity in the personality profile is more powerful than the odds of selecting an accountant from a group with a small number of accountants.
The representativeness heuristic can be illustrated with a simple exercise.
Drop a few pennies on the table from your pocket.
You and a friend are tossing coins.
Your friend is throwing heads.
bet on the next coin toss Before reading further, write down your reasons for making the choice.
We expect the number of heads and tails to be the same in the long run and random processes.
Research findings and our experiences show that fair coins behave this way.
The prior tosses don't affect the odds.
A series of heads and tails that don't look like chance is evidence that a non-chance process is going on.
The runs of heads and tails appear to be ordered.
Some gamblers assume that they have a better chance of predicting the next toss than they actually do.
We think that easily recalled items occur more frequently than those that are hard to remember.
We assume that what comes to mind easily is also more likely to happen in the future.
Most people think that the answer is a victim.
The person most likely to die in a drunk driving accident is a drunk driver according to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
It's easier to remember incidents in which an innocent person was the victim of a drunk-driving accident because they are considered news.
Drunk drivers die on the nation's highways every day, yet few of those accidents receive media attention.
The events covered by the media can affect how we assess our risk of accidents, catastrophes, or diseases.
Two of your friends are talking about the relative safety of traveling by plane or automobile to a vacation destination.
They decided to travel by car because of the news coverage of the recent plane crash.
Dramatic examples of airline accidents are easy to recall.
More people are killed in cars and trucks in a single week than in plane crashes over the course of a year.
In 2009, 33,808 people were killed in traffic crashes.
In a typical week, 650 people die in traffic crashes involving passenger vehicles, trucks, and motorcycles in the United States.
The total number of deaths attributed to scheduled commercial air carriers was 52.
We compare the information we have obtained to a standard to make decisions.
A bird strike caused the engines to fail on a U.S. Airways jet.
The plane made a landing in the river.
There were no deaths in this plane crash, but the coverage of these types of accidents leads many to underestimate the regularity of airline accidents.
Your answer depends on the basis of negative or positive outcomes.
These choices are examples of the novel and appropriate noticeable difference we discussed in Chapter 3.
We tend to see the benefits of a comparison in relative terms.
We want to stay away from negative outcomes when we make decisions.
This tendency could cause us to fail to see that the way identical information is presented can make a difference in decision making.
If you have lung cancer, the treatment options are surgery or radia tion.
The results of lung cancer patients who had surgery are told to you by your physician, so you can make an informed decision.
After one year, 77% of lung cancer patients choose radiation, and 22% are still alive five years later.
Most people would choose surgery.
The framing should be changed a bit.
After one year, 32% of patients who chose surgery are dead, and 34% are dead after five years.
After one year, 23% of patients who chose radiation are dead, and 22% are dead after five years.
These scenarios were not caused by stupidity or a malfunctioning brain.
The mind has evolved to be effective in situations that are most likely to arise.
We've developed methods of making decisions that work well, but not all of the time.
We are able to come up with creative and impressive solutions when faced with problems.
A group of judges were asked to make global ratings based on their own definitions of creativity.
Both verbal and artistic products were rated by the judges.
We can't define what is and isn't creative because people seem to agree.
The consensual assessment of creativity yields at least moderately reliable rat ings of creativity of a number of products as well as across cultures.
Intelligence tests were not designed to measure creativity, so the correlation between creativity and intelgence is weak.
High intelligence does not guarantee high creativity.
There is a judging of creativity.
Individuals with different levels of creativity created the mosaics.
The answer is a tree: family tree, palm tree, and tree diagram.
The answer is a table.
The answers can be found on the last page.
Think like a line.
Creative thinking is related more closely to divergent thinking.
It is possible to see aspects of an item that are real and useful but not the primary focus of our attention.
The items in Table 8-2 are similar to items found on the Remote Associates Test.
The test was designed to measure the process of making new associations.
Success on the test requires flexibility in making associations, use of language and originality.
Creative people are not afraid of hard work because they give it their all.
A willingness to take risks and expose oneself to the potential for failure is a mark of a creative person.
When she tapes a 3-hour session with a dancer, she may find 30 seconds of useful material, which means she rejects 99.7% of her day's work, a process she says is painful but necessary for the creative process to occur.
She is in contact with the world's greatest and most famous dancers.
The stage absorbed the energy of her fall and injected it back into her.
My eyes would be back to normal before I knew it.
People can put their self-esteem on the line for the chance of more rewards than they could ever imagine.
In order to find a light bulb that wouldn't burn out quickly, Thomas Edison conducted more than 2,000 experiments.
Fred Smith's idea for Federal Express was not feasible.
Federal Express is a leader in delivering packages around the world.
Creative people tolerate ambiguity, complexity, or a lack of symmetry.
When we rearrange what is known in new and unusual ways, we can come up with new ideas, goods, and services.
New associations and arrange ments can be formed with humor and playfulness.
When Mozart wrote, "When I feel well and in a good humor, or when I am taking a drive or walking after a good meal," he was aware of this possibility.
75% of the students watched a comedy film before trying to solve the problem.
Only a small percentage of students solved the problem by not watching a comedy film.
Isen and her colleagues put students into three groups.
The students in the first group watched a comedy film, the second group exercised for 2 minutes, and the third group had no special preparation.
The students tried to solve problems that were similar to those in the test.
The mo of venues like business tivator affects the person more than the environments, according to another perspective on the motivation underlying creativity.
Task develop and apply technology are Intrinsic motivators.