The dissociation theory of hypnotism acknowledges the importance of social context, but views it as a truly altered state of consciousness.
According to this theory, hypnotism is a state in which consciousness is separated from other aspects of consciousness.
Brain scans of hypnotized people have shown alterations in the brain activity.
They showed activity in the visual cortex regions involved in color perception.
The participants were asked to drain the color from the images.
When participants were not hypnotized, this activity pattern did not occur.
The results show that suggestion may change brain function.
If brain function is changed during hypnotism, then maybe it alters consciousness.
Even if the hypnotists are psychological researchers, it seems unlikely that people could alter their brain activity to please them.
Laboratory research has shown that this technique works.
A woman who plunges her arm into extremely cold water will feel great pain, and the pain will intensify over time.
A person can keep their arm in the water for 30 seconds, but a person can hold out for more than that.
People who experience analgesia can tolerate the cold water the longest.
In clinical settings, hypnotism has been effective in treating acute pain and chronic pain.
A patient can be taught how to recover from surgery.
The patient's interpre tation of pain may be changed by phenotic analgesia.
The patient feels the sensations associated with pain, but feels detached from them.
Although hypnotism does not affect the sensory processing of pain, it does reduce brain activity in regions that process the emotional aspects of pain.
It is unlikely that expectations about hypnotism or social pressure will help people feel detached from their pain.
It's not likely that expectations or social pressure will affect the brain activity seen during analgesia.
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People in the West have become more interested in examining Eastern techniques of creating an altered state of consciousness due to a growing awareness of different cultural and religious practices.
The conscientiousness technique is meditation.
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Sikhism all have different forms of meditation.
These forms of meditation are meant to bring enlightenment.
Most forms of meditation in the West are not religious.
They are meant to expand the mind, bring about feelings of inner peace, and help people deal with tensions and stresses in their lives.
There are three forms of meditation.
The form involves meditating for 20 minutes twice a day.
A large number of heart patients were randomly assigned to a program.
After 16 weeks, the patients who were practicing medicine improved more than the control group on a number of health measures, such as blood pressure, levels of fatty acid and cholesterol, and signs of diabetes.
The study didn't show which parts of the program produced the health benefits.
The effects of meditation on cognitive processing and brain function are studied by psychologists.
A study found that participants who meditated to achieve a completed meditation training showed a reduction in stress and a sense of calm.
The people who received meditation training felt less sad than the people who did not.
Structural changes in the brain that help maintain brain function are said to be brought about by long- term meditation.
One study found that the volume of gray matter did not diminish in older adults who practiced meditation.
As people age, meditation may help preserve cognitive functioning.
In study unit 1.10, correlation does not prove causality.
A practice in which contemplation is intense leads to a deep sense of calmness.
Evaluating psychology in the real world shows how to assess the altered results of research.
The circles indicate brain areas that show less activity when people are sad.
Control subjects' brains were less active after they watched sad clips from movies.
The brains of participants who had received eight weeks of meditation training remained active, which may explain why they felt less sad after viewing the sad clips.
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If you want to apply flow to your own life, you need to describe a flow experience you have had.
The woman appears to be overcome with the use of hypnotism and meditation, which are intended to change a person's state with religious ecstasy.
The runner's high is caused by the release of endorphins.
A shift in the person's state of consciousness is what causes it.
Similar alterations in consciousness can be created by religious ceremonies.
Chanting, dancing, or other behaviors are often used as a way for people to lose themselves in religious ecstasy.
A particular kind of experience that is so engaging and enjoyable that it completely engrossed in an enjoyable activity is the basis of a psychological theory about peak experiences.
Flow is an altered state of consciousness that you lose track of time, forget about your problems, and fail to notice other things.
Flow experiences can bring personal fulfillment and make life worth living.
Try it yourself to see if you can experience the positive effects of flow.
Our thoughts can be dominated by worries and feelings of failure.
Sometimes people get tired of dealing with life's problems and try to make themselves feel better through activities that allow them to escape.
People who engage in potential flow activities such as sports or work are more likely to feel fulfilled.
Flow can be experienced by being immersed in a favorite activity.
Pick something that is both engaging and escaping.
Sometimes people choose to escape and enjoy themselves rather than engage with life.
They drink to forget their troubles.
A few alcohol, take drugs, play video games, watch television, surf the Web, and listen to music are all possibilities for producing this altered state of consciousness.
The appeal of escapist entertainment is that it distracts from other things.
People don't feel bad about themselves because of that distraction.
To find out if you should accept the claim in this stress and worry, you need to read the Learning Tip on p. 7.
You can read the excerpted version.
Schools and hospitals are offering meditation classes to help people manage their health issues.
Doctors are questioning if the ancient Eastern practice really offers measurable health benefits.
A review of the evidence should help sort that out.
"We have moderate confidence that the techniques taught during the meditation class include visualization to help shift attention practices have a beneficial effect," wrote the away from thoughts that cause anxiety.
The body Scan is a technique.
This is a medical school.
You're told to relax.
The point is to stop the mind from wandering off each week.
Do your toes feel the effects?
The teacher guides are used in many of the research studies.
Four months is a long time for women to meditate.
The meta-analysis did not find the brain to stay in the moment.
Evidence that meditation programs can help practitioners let go of the regrets of treating substance abuse, sleep or weight issues is needed to do this.
One breast cancer study had no harmful side effects.
163 women with stage 1 or stage 2 breast cancer are free.
Running or reading can have positive effects.
Others are relatively harmless.
Others come at a great personal expense.
In South Korea in 2010, Kim Jae- beom and his common- law wife, Kim Yun- jeong, spent every night raising a virtual daughter as part of a role- playing game.
They neglected their daughter to the point that she died of starvation.
Binge eating, unsafe sex, and suicide can all be associated with ways of escaping the self.
According to the social psychologist Roy Baumeister, people engage in such behaviors because they want to escape their problems.
Drug use or simple entertainment can shift into obsession when a person continually alcohol to create an altered state of consciousness, which is a common way people try to escape their problems.
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For a short time, others can be pleasant.
At some point in our lives, most tion, injury, or death, some of those mental states can have negative consequences.
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, over 300 million people around the globe use drugs each year.
From the perspective of psychology, this section looks at the effects of drug use.
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Psychoactive drugs that result in an altered state of consciousness are often used to make drugs illegal.
Psychotropic drugs alter behavior and mental activity.
Coffee and tea are psychoactive drugs.
Psychoactive drugs can cause a mental activity.
Depressives decrease behavior and mental activity.
Pain and producing pleasure are caused by hallucinogens.
The section considers a few common psychoactive drugs and describes Psychoactive drugs that create an how the effects of a particular drug on a user depend on which neurotransmitter altered state of consciousness.
Stimulants increase heart rate and blood pressure.
They make people restless and disrupt sleep.
Even though the effects are mild, many substances act as stimulants.
Coffee, soda, and energy drinks often contain moderate amounts of caffeine, but they can add up if you drink a lot.
At night, drinking these beverages can interfere with sleep.
There is a chemical in chocolate that stimulates the brain.
Nicotine is found in cigarettes and e- cigarettes.
Stimulants that are more powerful include cocaine and amphetamines.
Some drugs used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder have amphetamines in them.
Adderall is sometimes taken by students to help them study.
A majority of college students know someone who has used a nonprescribed stimulant as a study aid.
The impact of dopamine can be prolonged by letting the neurotransmitter remain in the brain.
Stimulants increase the release of dopamine by the brain.
Dopamine is involved in drug use in two ways.
The increased dopamine is associated with increased liking.
Even if the drug doesn't produce pleasure, the increased dopamine leads to a greater desire to take it.
Dopamine is important for the wanting aspect of addiction.
America has a long history of legal use of cocaine.
John was impressed with the effects of cocaine.
Coca- Cola was created in 1886 when he added the drug to soda water.
cocaine was removed from the drink in 1906 because it was banned in the U.S. Coke is still made with coca leaves, but the active ingredient has been removed.
Users experience a wave of confidence and feel good.
The advertisement claims that it can increase the concentration of dopamine in the brain.
The short-term effects of Coca- Cola are especially intense for crack cocaine users.
The company included cocaine in the drink quantities that can lead to paranoia, psychotic behavior, and violence.
After marijuana, meth is the world's second most commonly used drug.
The use of meth may be declining.
The drug was first developed as a nasal decongestant in the 20th century, but became popular as a recreational drug in the 1980s.
One factor that has encouraged use of this drug and may explain its popularity is how easy it is to make common over- the- counter drugs and simple lab methods.
By blocking the reuptake of dopamine and increasing its release, meth yields higher levels of dopamine in the brain.
The effects of methamphetamine are longer than those of cocaine.
Drug use damages various brain structures, including the frontal lobes, where complex thought is processed.
Deterrents reduce behavioral and addiction.
The brain damage that comes from slowing down the central nervous system can be seen in the red and yellow areas.
Anti- anxiety drugs are usually given to calm people and reduce worry because of methamphetamine abuse.
Depressives can cause sleep in large quantities.
The before and after photos show the physical damage from meth.
The photo on the left was taken before Theresa was a meth user.
The photo on the right was taken less than 3 years after she was arrested for crimes she committed to support her addiction.
The effects of depressants are produced by the activation of the sphinx.
In study unit 2.3, you learned that the primary neurotransmitter in the brain is GABA.
The effects of depressants on the brain may explain why they are relaxing.
Alcohol is the most widely used and abused drug.
Maybe you know a person who drank a lot of alcohol, experienced a blackout, and can't remember the details.
Like other addictive drugs, alcohol may offer its rewards by stimulating dopamine receptors.
Extreme alcohol intake can cause memory loss and interfere with the brain processes involved in memory.
Alcohol can cause damage to the brain.
There is a love/hate relationship with alcohol.
Moderate drinking is an accepted part of social interaction and may be good for health.
Alcohol is a major contributor to many societal problems, such as spousal abuse and other forms of violence.
Alcohol is a factor in more than one third of fatal accidents.
One study found that one third of college students reported having sex during a drinking binge, and the heaviest drinkers were more likely to have sex with a new or casual partner.
The cost of problem drinking in the United States is estimated to be more than 100 billion dollars a year.
In every region of the world, men drink a lot more alcohol than women across a wide variety of measures.
Men are more likely to report binge drinking, chronic drinking, and recent alcohol intoxication.
University students may have smaller gender gaps in binge drinking.
A leading researcher on substance abuse is Alan Marlatt.
In many cultures, people view alcohol as the "magic elixir," capable of increasing social skills, sexual pleasure, confidence, and power.
They think alcohol will have positive effects on their behavior.
Light and heavy drinkers turn to alcohol after a difficult day because they think alcohol reduces anxiety.
According to the research, drinking after a hard day can increase people's focus on and obsession with their problems.
Moderate amounts of alcohol are associated with more positive moods, but larger amounts are associated with more negative moods.
Expectations about alcohol's effects are learned early in life.
People who drink seem to have a lot of fun and drinking is an important part of many celebrations.
Teenagers may see drinkers as grown up and want to be.
Children who have positive expectations about alcohol are more likely to start drinking and become heavy drinkers than children who don't have those expectations.
The term "opioids" is still used to refer to opium regardless of whether it is natural or synthetic.
Opioid drugs produce feelings of relaxation, insensitivity to pain, and euphoria.
Heroin provides a rush of intense pleasure that is similar to sexual orgasm.
The rush develops into a pleasant, relaxed state.
Heroin and morphine have physical effects that make them addictive.
They increase wanting of the drug and pleasure by binding with opiate receptors.
People want to use the drug again because they enjoy the experience.
Opioids have been used to relieve pain for hundreds of years.
Before the twentieth century, heroin was widely available without a prescription and was marketed by the aspirin company.
There are clear benefits to using short-term opioids to relieve pain.
Opioid use to relieve chronic pain is more likely to lead to abuse or addiction than is short- term use.
There are a number of neurological and cognitive deficits associated with long- term use of opioids.
An epidemic of opiate abuse has been growing over the past few decades.
The epidemic is thought to be caused by the increased use of prescription drugs for chronic pain.
Many first responders now carry a drug that can reverse the effects of an overdose.
In 2015, the FDA approved Narcan, a spray that is easy to administer.
Narcan is now available without a prescription in many states.
Opioid users might be increasing their risky drug use because of the availability of Narcan.
The FDA is working on new guidelines for the safe and effective use of pain medications for millions of Americans who suffer chronic pain.
When the drugs will be used for a long period of time, clinicians need to be cautious.
There is a chemical found in certain types of fungus that grow on wheats that was discovered in 1938.
It takes about 12 hours for the drug experience to kick in.
It can be pleasurable or unpleasurable to experience the effects of LSD.
People using the drug have a distorted sense of time.
There are many substances that have mystical properties.
Hallucinogenic effects can be produced by eating the top part of the peyote cactus or certain types of mushrooms.
These substances have been used in religious rituals.
Marijuana and MDMA are the most popular hallucinogenic drugs.
The effects of MDMA are similar to the effects of stimulants.
The street version of MDMA, also known as ecstasy or Molly, can contain other chemicals as well.
The drug became popular among young adults in nightclubs and raves in the 1990s.
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, ecstasy use by high school students increased between 2009 and 2010.
MDMA has less dopamine activity than amphetamines.
The hallucinogenic properties of ecstasy may be explained by the release of the Serotonin.
MDMA can cause damage to a number of brain regions, particularly the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, according to research on animals.
Studies with humans show evidence of a range of impairments from long- term ecstasy use, especially memory problems and a diminished ability to perform complex tasks.
Any drug can be toxic in large quantities.
There is controversy over whether occasional recreational use of ecstasy causes long- term damage.
Some ecstasy users take very high doses or use other drugs that are known to be toxic to the brain.
There is growing evidence that MDMA may have benefits for the treatment of post traumatic stress disorder.
The drug reduces the negative emotions that people have about their traumatic experiences even after the drug wears off.
MDMA does not have negative effects on health when used as part of a treatment.
Many pills being sold as ecstasy or Molly have other dangerous chemicals in them.
When they contain MDMA, the doses vary widely, increasing the likelihood of overdose.
Many concertgoers have died after consuming what they believed to be ecstasy or Molly.
It's the most popular drug in the world.
Marijuana can be classified as a depressant, a hallucinogen, or a Stimulus because it can increase appetite, make people feel sleepy, or make them feel mellow.
A relaxed mental state, Deaths from MDMA, and some perceptual and cognitive distortions are produced by this chemical.
People who attend Mari Concertgoers are shown at electric juana users that the change in state of consciousness is caused by the change in perception during the Labor Day weekend.
Two attendees died after taking most first- time marijuana users do not experience the "high" felt by more expe MDMA sold as Molly.
It's possible that novice smokers used inefficient techniques and ended their day a day early.
Users must learn how to appreciate the drug's effects.
The first time someone uses a drug other than Marijuana is usually the first time.
When a person needs to take larger Marijuana, it is also used for its medical benefits.
Cancer patients can experience the effects of a drug.
The medical use of marijuana of addiction is controversial due to the possibility that chronic use can cause health problems or person experiences anxiety, tension, lead to abuse of the drug.
After stopping use of an addictive drug, some countries and American states have concluded that there are cravings.
Many states have legalized recreational use of marijuana.
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Explain the physical and psychological aspects of addiction in your own words.
Drugs can be a blessing and a curse.
If they are taken under the right circumstances, they can relieve pain and headaches.
People suffering from depression can be helped.
There were 30,000 including addiction and death.
Despite its negative consequences, addiction in the united states is still a problem.
Drug addic deaths have physical and psychological factors.
Since 1999 ops tolerance to the drug has increased dramatically.
The number of deaths due to traffic accidents has become more important than the number of people who consume that drug.
Symptoms of withdrawal will occur if the user fails to take the drug.
The physical and psychological state is characterized by anxiety, tension, and craving for the drug.
Drug to drug, individual to individual, the physical symptoms of withdrawal vary.
Without showing tolerance or withdrawal, a person can be psychologically dependent.
People can become psychologically dependent on behaviors, such as shopping or gambling, if they become addicted to substances that create altered state of consciousness.
The rewarding properties of taking drugs may be related to dopamine activ ity in the limbic system.
Any behavior that increases dopamine activity is likely to be repeated.
The desire to take more of the drug is caused by dopamine receptors being activated.
Some people are more vulnerable to addiction due to their genes being more responsive to the rein forcing properties of drugs.
There is some evidence for genetic components of addiction, but there is not much evidence for a single "addiction" or "alcoholism" gene.
Some people are more likely to explore drugs and enjoy them if they haveherited factors such as risk-taking and impulsivity.