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31 -- Part 5: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
Khrushchev agreed to remove the missiles.
Within two years of the Cuban missile crisis, Khrushchev was removed in a bloodless coup.
After they took over in 1964, they talked quietly of Stalin's "good points," stopped further liberalization, and launched a massive arms build up.
The 1960s brought more consumer goods to eastern Europe as a result of Khrushchev's reforms.
The doctrine movement ended.
Free expression and open protest disappeared after the intervention in Czechoslovakia.
Dissidents were imprisoned or blacklisted.
In comparison to the Stalinist era, dictatorship was more about control and less about personal freedom.
The compromise seemed to suit the leaders and a majority of the people, and the Soviet Union appeared stable in the 1970s and early 1980s.
A rising standard of living for ordinary people contributed to stability, even though the eco nomic crisis of the 1970s slowed the rate of improvement.
The privileges enjoyed by the Communist Party elite reinforced the system.
Ambitious individuals had tremendous incentives to do as the state wished in order to gain access to special wel -stocked stores, attend superior schools, and travel abroad.
The nationalism of ordinary Russians was a source of stability.
Party leaders identified themselves with Russian patriotism because of their role in the Second World War.
Half of the total Soviet population was dominated by the Great Russians, who held the top positions in the non-Russian republics.
The Soviet Union was experiencing a social revolution.
A rapidly expanding urban population gave up their peasant ways for more education, better job skills, and more sophistication.
The growth of Soviet public opinion was fostered by this trend.
People who have been educated formed definite ideas about social questions such as environmental pol ution and urban trans portation.
The dramatic reforms of the Gorbachev era were set in motion by these changes.
Gorbachev was elected as leader in 1985.
He realized that the reforms of Brezhnev wouldn't be enough to save the state.
Gorbachev realized that success at home required better relations with the West.
Gorbachev tried to save the Soviet system with a series of reform policies.
The first set of reforms was intended to change the economy.
Gorbachev allowed an easing of government price controls on some goods when the economy improved.
The new frankness led to something approaching free speech services for consumers, which was something that had long been characterized by pub private cooperative to provide per lic discourse.
Gorbachev's third reform, Soviet premier Democratization, led to the first free elec Gorbachev's popular campaign for openness in the government tions in the Soviet Union since 1917.
Demands for greater and the media were encouraged by democratization.
Gorbachev drew back from the massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing in June 1989.
The nationalist demands continued to grow.
Gorbachev brought new political thinking to foreign affairs.
In February 1989 he withdrew the Soviet troops from Afghanistan.
The political choices of eastern Europe's peoples will be re-spectrated after Gorbachev repudiated the Brezhnev Doctrine.
The Soviet occupation of eastern Europe seemed to be coming to an end by 1989.
In 1989 a series of peaceful revolutions swept across eastern Europe, ending Communist regimes.
There are new governments dedicated to democratic elections, human rights, and national rejuvenation.
The way was led by the Poles.
Poland refused to break with the Roman Catholic Church and resisted Soviet-style collectivi zation.
The Communists failed to dominate society because of an inde pendent agricultural sector and vigorous church.
The economy was sent into a nose dive after they failed to manage it effectively.
Lech Walesa led a free and democratic Polish trade that made the Polish nation great.
Lech workers are involved in political reform.
Martial law was declared in December 1981 by the Communist leadership.
Solidarity had strong popular support.
Poland was on the verge of economic collapse by 1988 due to labor unrest and inflation.
Solidarity pressured Poland's Communist Party to legalized Solidarity in June 1989 for some seats in the Polish parliament.
Every seat was won by Solidarity.
The first noncommunist prime minister in eastern Europe in a generation was sworn in in 1927.
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