The beginning of the fight for equality is thought to have happened at the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848.
The fight for political suffragism was led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and she supported a doctrine very similar to the Declaration of Independence.
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions for women's rights stated that the history of mankind is a history of injuries and usurpations on the part of man toward woman.
The Nineteenth Amendment gave woman the right to vote.
The fight to get equality for women has been difficult.
The publication of Betty Friedan's book The Feminine Mystique was a turning point in the fight for equality.
The age of feminism began.
The National Organization for Women and the National Women's Political Caucus were formed.
The Equal Rights Amendment was supported by them.
It attempted to do the same thing as the Fourteenth Amendment did for African-Americans.
It was ironic that one of the arguments against the amendment was that the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment already existed.
The Equal Pay Act of 1963, which required employers to pay men and women the same wages for doing the same jobs, was one of the earliest acts.
The issue of "comparable worth," paying women equally for jobs similar to those held by men, was challenged in a Supreme Court case.
Lilly Ledbetter sued her employer after she discovered that she was paid less than men for the same job.
The Title VII section of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 states that the suit was brought to court after the legal time limit had expired.
The court ruled against Ledbetter, stating that she did not meet the legal deadline of suing within 180 days of the start of the alleged discrimination, even though she claimed to be unaware of the salary differential for many years.
The decision was criticized by labor unions and women, who argued that the result of the case ignored the fact that Ledbetter had been discriminated against.
The Lilly Ledbetter Act allows suits to be filed after the discovery of discrimination regardless of when it happened.
It was signed into law by President Obama after it was vetoed by George W. Bush.
Many acts of Congress and the Supreme Court paved the way for women's rights.
There was an anti-sex discrimination provision in the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
The Education Act of 1972 extended the Title VII provisions.
Title IX made sex discrimination in education programs illegal.
In 1969 a presidential order directed that equal opportunities for women be considered as national policy.
It took a key court case, Reed v Reed, which made a state law that favored men over women in the selection of an estate's executor unconstitutional, to establish a legal precedent.
In Frontiero v Richardson, the Court stated that the nation has had a long and unfortunate history of sex discrimination.
The courts have ruled that certain work-related situations are discrimination.
In 1977 the Court struck down an Alabama law that prevented women from serving as prison guards in all-male prisons.
In 1992, the Court ruled that Johnson Controls could not prevent women from working in a battery factory if the work caused infertility in women.
Sexual harassment in the workplace has been raised since the confirmation hearings of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.
The public's awareness of the issue has gone up since the University of Oklahoma law professor raised those charges.
The appointment of Ruth Bader Ginsburg to the Supreme Court in 1994 was seen as a sign that discrimination and sexual harassment would not be accepted.
The quest for women's rights included advances in political office.
Governor Grasso's victory in 1974, the appointment of O'Connor as the first woman Supreme Court Justice in 1981 and the nomination of Ferraro as Walter Mondale's running mate in 1984 are just a few examples.
The first African-American Senator, Carol Moseley Braun, was elected to Congress in the 1992 elections.
Hillary Clinton was elected as a senator from New York in the 2000 election.
She is the first former First Lady to be elected to public office.
She ran for president in 2008.
Sarah Palin was the first woman to run for Vice President on a Republican ticket.
Gay rights lag behind other minority groups.
Equal protection for homosexuals has not been guaranteed by gay activists and federal and state legislatures.
In Colorado in 1993, an initiative referendum rejected gay rights proposals, as well as establishing legal obstacles for gays.
The Supreme Court was not sympathetic.
The legality of a Georgia anti-sodomy law was the subject of a 1986 case.
The case was viewed as a test for gay rights because of the two homosexuals who violated the law.
The Georgia state law was upheld by the Supreme Court.
The Court ruled in 2003 that a Texas sodomy law was unconstitutional.
Amendment 2 was adopted by the people of Colorado in 1992.
There was a provision that the state could not give protected status to homosexuals.
The Supreme Court heard a case about the referendum.
The decision was a victory for gay rights supporters.
The Supreme Court ruled in 2000 that the national organization of the Boy Scouts of America could deny membership to a gay leader.
Jim Dale, a homosexual Scout leader in New Jersey, was barred from his position by the Boy Scouts.
The Scouts claimed that they had the right to exclude certain people from membership in their organization.
The Boy Scouts' meetings took place in a public school in New Jersey.
The court ruled in favor of the Boy Scouts.
Many schools refused to allow the Boy Scouts to meet if homosexuals were barred from participation, as a result of the decision.
Clinton directed the military to follow a "Don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue" policy.
It allowed homosexuals to serve in the military as long as they did not reveal that they were gay.
The military establishment had a hard time accepting the policy, which was criticized by many in Congress.
The court declared part of the policy unconstitutional because of the First Amendment free speech provision and the Fifth Amendment due process provision.
George W. Bush did not change the uneasily-balanced policy.
President Barack Obama supported the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell when he was elected.
The United States was involved in two wars, one in Iraq and the other in Afghanistan, which made the military leadership hesitant to advocate a change.
From 2008 to 2010 gay groups and gay servicemen and women who were discharged filed petitions to find the law unconstitutional.
The military was ordered to stop the policy by the federal appeal courts.
The repeal was put on hold by the courts after the Obama administration convinced them to do so.
President Obama urged Congress to repeal the Don't Ask, Don't Tell policy after the Defense Department conducted a review.
President Obama signed the repeal into law in 2010. homosexuals were allowed to serve in the military without fear of dismissal after the military stopped removing gay soldiers.
Gay activist groups have been outspoken in their quest for equal protection under the law.
They have made inroads on college campuses by marching alongside mainstream groups in parades.
In the spring of 2004, the Massachusetts Supreme Court ruled that gay marriages were legal.
The drafting of an amendment to the United States Constitution that would define marriage as the union of a man and woman was the result of a backlash from opponents of the decision.
Even though Congress passed the Defense of Marriage Act in 1996, a law that allowed states not to recognize gay marriages from other states and made illegal any federal benefits to states that did allow gay marriages, proponents of the amendment and President George W. Bush felt that its passage would be.
The amendment never came to a vote because of a Democratic filibuster.
In 2005, Connecticut became the second state to approve same-sex marriage.
The California Supreme Court struck down the state's ban on same-sex marriage in 2008.
In 2008, opponents of the decision passed a statewide initiative, which created a constitutional amendment banning same sex marriage.
The initiative was upheld by the California Supreme Court.
Same-sex marriages performed before the passage of Prop 8 were still legal.
The ban was overturned in 2010 by a federal appeals court.
The 1996 Defense of Marriage Act, which prevented federal benefits to gay couples who were married or recognized by a state, probably will end up before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Gay marriages are allowed in six states and the District of Columbia, while eight states have some form of recognition of the rights of unmarried gay couples.
The New York State Legislature passed a gay marriage law that was seen as a major victory for gay rights advocates.
Same-sex marriage and civil unions are banned in 30 states.
The minority group pie is being divided into smaller and smaller pieces.
Lobbyists and special interests are a part of the American society.
Since life expectancy has increased tremendously, senior citizens have become an activist group.
The needs of the handicapped have become very important to society.
With the realization that young people are the future leaders of the country, Congress has passed civil rights legislation that has an impact on the youth.
Senior citizens, the handicapped, and young people seeking civil rights and equal protection under the law have influenced government, resulting in the creation of public policies.
Senior citizens have been recognized as a segment of society that is a responsibility of the government ever since Social Security became an entitlement in Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal program.
The American Association of Retired Persons lobbies against government cuts to Social Security and Medicare.
There are a number of complaints regarding discrimination against senior citizens.
Congress passed age discrimination acts in 1967, and civil rights laws made it illegal for employers to discriminate against people over the age of 40.
The compulsory retirement age was raised to 70 in 1978.
There is a growing movement to ban mandatory retirement age.
The issue of healthcare is a big concern for senior citizens.
Americans with handicaps make up 20 percent of the population.
People with physical, mental, and emotional disabilities are included.
They've been denied support services.
The needs of this group have been recognized by the government in the last 20 years.
When veteran groups returned from World War I and World War II, they needed aid.
At the end of World War II, the GI Bill of Rights was passed.
The Education of All Handicapped Children Act was passed in 1975, giving children the right to an education with appropriate services that meet the needs of specific disabilities.
The Americans with Disabilities Act requires employers, schools, and public buildings to provide ramps, elevators, and other appropriate facilities for handicapped individuals.
This act made it illegal for employers to discriminate against the handicapped in the job market.
The rights of disabled Americans have been recognized by the courts.
There may be issues that are not as conclusive.
Limits have been imposed by the Supreme Court.
The Court ruled in 2001 that a professional golfer with a physical handicap could use a golf cart during tournament play.
The Court used the Eleventh Amendment's immunity provision to limit individual lawsuits against states under the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Many of the same problems faced by senior citizens and the handicapped are also faced by young people.
School administrators have the right to censor school-sponsored publications and plays, as well as give school officials the right to discipline students if they give a speech containing obscenities.
In 1995 the Court ruled that random drug testing of student athletes was constitutional.
Young women and the handicapped have been protected.
Title IX of the Civil Rights Act made it illegal to discriminate against women in sports.
The Americans with Disabilities Act provided for extensive special education opportunities for students at school.
State laws mandate child support for families who have experienced divorce and protect young people against child abuse.
Youth are crying out for protection against drugs and violence.
After graduating from high school and college, they need to find employment.
They received legislation in 1993 that made it easier for high school students to obtain government aid so that they can attend college in return for national service.
Adoption practices have become very controversial and affect young people.
The need for laws that recognize the needs of the child as well as the natural and adoptive families is pointed out in cases involving child custody.
These groups have had a difficult time reaping the benefits of living in this country, so their quest for civil rights is even more important in order to accomplish this goal.
Native Americans and new immigrants are still fighting for civil rights.
The Department of Interior has an official agency for Native Americans.
Native Americans who are American citizens have the right to vote and legislative benefits are administered to them by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Native Americans living on reservations are recognized by treaty as having the full characteristics of a nation.
They have the right to govern their reservations as they please.
Native Americans living outside the reservation face severe poverty and must seek assistance from the states they live in.
Russell Means and other militant leaders have pressured the government to give specific aid packages for healthcare, educational opportunities, housing, and jobs.
Gambling casinos have boosted the standard of living for Native Americans living on reservations.
Indians have the right to build large casinos even in states that don't allow gambling.
For the first time, Native Americans have been able to develop a prospering economy thanks to these ventures.
Hispanics and Asians have grown in numbers as their home countries have become more difficult to live in.
Cuban and Haitian immigrants have settled in Miami.
New York City has become a second home to Puerto Ricans and Jamaicans.
Mexicans fleeing poor economic conditions have settled in Texas, Arizona, and California.
Asians have left Korea and Japan because of war.
Many have become citizens and others have obtained legal status.
They are having a hard time getting civil rights.
The American people feel that those groups place an additional burden on America's welfare system.
These groups have yet to achieve complete political equality despite the fact that they are increasing in numbers.
There are more Hispanic and Asian representatives in Congress.
There is a Congressional Hispanic Caucus.
Henry Gonzalez, a Democrat from Texas, was the chairman of the House Banking Committee from 1994 to 1994.
Henry Cisneros was Secretary of Housing in Clinton's cabinet.
The first Hispanic-American to run for president was New Mexico Governor Bill Richardson.
The courts have seen the problems faced by these groups.
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 requires schools to offer English as a second language to non-English-speaking students.
Legislation making English the official language of the city causes a language problem for these groups.
California has passed referenda abolishing bilingual education programs.
Americans reacted in a strong way against immigrants and illegal aliens after the first great influx.
Californians voted to deny social services to illegal immigrants in 1994, while Republicans tried to deny welfare for legal immigrants in the same year.
There was a debate in 2006 about what to do about illegal immigrants.
A comprehensive immigration bill proposed by President George W. Bush would have secured the nation's border while giving illegal immigrants a path to citizenship through a guest worker program.
Congress voted to build a 700-mile fence to stop illegal immigrants from entering the country.
The debate over illegal immigration intensified after the election.
Arizona passed an immigration law in 2010 that gave state authorities the right to stop and check the immigration status of people they felt were illegal immigrants.
The Department of Justice challenged the law because the administration claimed that the enforcement of immigration policy is a federal prerogative.
While the case was in the courts, some parts of the law were held up.
Jim Crow laws legalized segregation.
The Fifteenth Amendment prevented African-Americans from voting, but grandfather voting laws allowed former Confederate officials to vote.
It was difficult for African-Americans to vote.
Congress tried to nationalize civil rights in the late 1800s.
The public accommodation sections were ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Equal protection under the law and privileges of people are some of the provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment.
Civil liberty guarantees are called Habeas corpus.
One of the most significant results of the case was Choice A, which was separate but equal.
The principle was not fully applied to civil rights cases until the Brown case.
There were clear and present dangers from the Schenk case.
The elastic clause, the reserved power clause, and the separation of powers are all constitutional principles.
The phrase "No State shall deprive persons" is a major characteristic of incorporating.
De jure segregation was illegal after the Brown decision.
If Choice D can be proven, it would be the same as de jure segregation.
Even though choices C, D, and E are related to civil rights issues, they did not result in the recognition that discrimination in public accommodations is illegal.
The first person answered the question.
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was used by the Court.
The Court ruled that racial preferences could be used as part of an overall plan when it came to schools and work.
The Court uses Choices A, C, D, and E to determine if there is a sufficient cause to rule that an affirmative action remedy is necessary.
The issue of feminism may have been dealt with in the Feminine Mystique, but it was not historical.
The Equal Rights Amendment would not have an emotional statement.
The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was the first call for women's rights.
Civil rights for women are contributed to by statements II, III, and IV.
Title VII is applicable to the workplace.
The Court uses comparable worth deals with equal pay and medium scrutiny to evaluate equal protection issues.
A school administrator was able to search a student without a warrant.
The school limited Frasier's First Amendment rights because of the content of his speech.
The issue of maternity leave was dealt with in the Lafleur case.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination.
You could possibly eliminate the three Supreme Court cases from being similar answers.
The voter initiative took away state social services for illegal aliens.
The federal government has pursued an active policy of civil rights for minority groups.
Affirmative action is any action taken by the federal government to benefit minorities.
Affirmative action can be seen in many aspects of society, such as minority candidates trying to get a broadcast license.
The foundation of the case is the latter point.
The FCC favors minorities when considering broadcast licenses.
The FCC won the case after the Court ruled that affirmative action was constitutional.
The judges created a new law separate from the legislative branch in order to prove that affirmative action is constitutional by the Supreme Court.
Affirmative action is a concept created by the courts and is a result of judicial activism.
Civil rights, affirmative action, and school policy are important areas of public policy that need to be understood and followed through the courts.
Judicial activism and restraint are important ideas because they help mold the decisions of many cases and play vital roles in our judicial system.
State and local civil rights legislation have accompanied these.
Even though the Nineteenth Amendment granted voting rights to women in the U.S., they still sought equal treatment in other social relationships.
The Equal Rights Amendment is intended to outlaw discrimination based on sex in the U.S. Constitution.
In 1971 and 1972 the House of Representatives and the Senate approved the Equal Rights Amendment.
On June 30, 1982, three states fell short of the 38 needed to approve the amendment to the constitution.
The equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment was not used to give women explicit constitutional protection.
Sex discrimination within the context of violation of constitutional rights is the most serious sanction in the U.S. legal system.
Civil rights for African-Americans were advanced by a Supreme Court case.
The Supreme Court case increased civil rights for African-Americans.
One point is earned for the identification of a constitutional amendment that was initiated to advance the cause of equal rights for women.
The amendment would have increased the rights of women.