50 percent of your grade is given to this section.
If a student scores above 50 percent on the multiple-choice section and scores in the middle to upper range of the free-response questions, they will receive an overall score of 3.
The four required free-response questions can be answered in different ways by the student.
Each of the four free-response questions is worth 12.5 percent of the exam's overall score.
Raters are given a rubric that ranges from 3 to 9 points for scoring the answers.
The totals are converted into an overall score for the free-response section.
Students receive 1 point for each task successfully completed, depending on the criteria for the question.
When students identify the correct answer and then use examples to explain it, full credit is obtained for each part of the answer.
If a student fails to answer a question completely, they can receive partial credit.
The goal when answering a free-response question is to fully address the listed tasks.
You need to give specific examples to support your answer.
Full credit will be given to students who answer the questions correctly and provide adequate examples.
Fifty percent of the examination is worth four questions.
Each answer is weighted.
The key phrases are similar and call for the completion of a task.
There are additional sample and practice questions in the model tests.
There are major components of a free-response answer.
Some topics have appeared in the past as free-response questions.
They show the nature of the question and are not meant to reflect the exact language.
The budget process, elastic clause, and interstate commerce clause have increased the federal government's power over the states.
The War Powers Act limits the war-making power of the president in a constitutional dispute.
The relationship to the states is what congressional reapportionment means.
When it is used to redistrict.
The balance between presidential influence over Congress and how a president is limited in his influence over Congress in the area of public policy is exemplified by the enumerated powers of the president that help him influence public policy.
The impact that the Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution had on voting rights and how civil rights laws have changed African-American voter turnout will be discussed.
Prior to the 1960s, what states did to affect African-Americans.
The power they could have in government was up for debate.
The United States Constitution established rights for the minority against majority rule.
The people were represented by the government and the Constitution protected minority rights.
One example of a linkage institution is elections.
Low voter turnout can weaken this link, but what other examples of linkage institutions help connect people to their governments?
There is a factor that hurts voter turnout.
The rules of the House can affect whether a law is passed by Congress.
What types of things can the majority party do to pass a law in the House of Representatives?
Public opinion polls are an example of linkage with elected officeholders.
They use the results of polls in a variety of ways, such as what their voters think, and the political impact of the results.
Each party has a national nominating convention where delegates choose a presidential and vice-presidential candidate.
The delegates are chosen by the states and the parties.
Superdelegates increase the power of party leaders during the nominating process, and what is the impact of having them.
One of the characteristics of the U.S. Constitution is the separation of powers between the three branches of government.
Look for tasks after reading all of the questions.
Read the whole question.
Key words listed in a previous section will help you understand what the question is looking for.
References to data and examples that relate to the question can be found on the exam.
Make sure you give a specific example for every statement you make.
You can use historical and current data to support your answer.
Don't use it if you don't know a specific name, date or term.
If you can describe an example, fill in most of the details.
Make sure that your evidence and data support the task.
The format of the question is answer task (a) first, then task (b), etc.
Use the specific factual data and examples in your outline.
The tasks mentioned in the question are what you should refer to in your answer.
If the question gives you specific data areas to comment on, make sure your examples and answer refer to those areas in the question.
It is easy to write the free-response answer once you follow the strategy advice.
Students have a fear of writing.
If you approach this task the same way, you can create a multilevel building.
The question would be represented by the foundation.
The first floor is usually where you will find the first task.
The second floor explains what you have found.
The second task is represented by the third floor and the next floor explains what you have identified as part of the second task.
There can be two or more tasks in most answers.
Other answers are based on an illustration.
Understanding what the question is all about is the most important part of your answer.
The answer usually starts with a statement related to the topic.
You will be asked to complete a series of tasks.
Follow the "building block" model to complete each task.
You will be able to demonstrate your knowledge of the subject matter with these building blocks of information.
There is no need for a formal conclusion.
Don't be afraid to apply your extensive data bank of information to the questions posed, and let the reader know what you are doing every step of the way.
You are not fooling anyone if you shorten your answer with excessive wordiness.
If you use building slippage, your building blocks will begin to fall under their own weight, and you will be left with no support.
Some model free-response answers in this book may include more material than the question requires.
The model answer will give the most thorough information if the question says to choose two out of three topics.
The answers to the free-response questions should be written and completed within the allotted time.
You have 25 minutes to answer the question.
The question is based on your knowledge of politics and government in the U.S. You need to give enough information and examples in your answer.
Some people claim that the Supreme Court's decision to hear controversial cases could change public policy.
A scoring rubric that describes the number of points that are allocated for this question and a brief explanation of some of the possible answers to the question will be found after this answer.
All the questions can be read.
Key terms and any information contained in the questions are things to look for.
Building blocks can be used to organize your information.
Amendment 73 of the Arkansas Constitution was challenged.
The federal government's sovereignty was argued to have been violated by state-mandated term limits.
Term limits might have restricted a voter's right to choose the best candidate for office and state-imposed term limits enacted by only a limited number of states would disrupt the congressional seniority system and limit the power of the senators and representatives from those states.
State-imposed term limits were found to be unconstitutional by the petitioners.
In order to become a member of Congress, you need to be at least 25 years old, have residency in the state and district you represent, and have U.S. citizenship for a certain number of years prior to taking office.
The Constitution doesn't say that a member of Congress can't be in office for a long time.
State-imposed term limits take away federal powers and are unconstitutional because that qualification isn't mentioned.
The Tenth Amendment's reserve powers clause and Sections 4 and 5 of the Constitution were believed to be Constitutional by the respondents in this case.
The respondents believed that the three parts of the Constitution gave individual states the right to impose term limits.
The impact of the Supreme Court's decision has been political.
The current political status quo in Washington will not change until a constitutional amendment is passed.
One point is earned for explaining the position of those who believe state-imposed term limits are unconstitutional and one point is earned for explaining the position of those who believe state-imposed term limits are constitutional.
Explaining how the Court's opinion impacted public policy earns one point.
The decision to rule state-imposed term limits unconstitutional had an impact on any state that wanted to create term limits for their representatives to Congress.
The decision to overturn the Arkansas law made it clear that any state-imposed term limit had to be enacted through a constitutional amendment.
The status quo was maintained by the decision that the constitutional provisions for election to Congress could not be changed by a state law.
Questions based on charts and graphs may be historical or contemporary.
Students are expected to use a variety of sources.
AP readers will look for evidence that the student understands the data, explains the data in relation to the question, and gives specific examples to answer the question as it relates to the data.
The directions state that the student must analyze and integrate an analysis with a general understanding of U.S. government and politics.
The key terms used in the question should be highlighted.
Significant points within the data should be highlighted.
The title and the graph's statistical parameters should be highlighted.
The following topics have appeared on the test in the past.
They are not meant to reflect the language of the questions.
Discretionary and mandatory spending can be analyzed through pie charts.
Using a map and identifying geographic regions that voted strongly Democrat and strongly Republican, you can describe voting patterns in presidential elections.
Explain how congressional reelection patterns have created an advantage for incumbents using a pie chart and describe the impact that incumbency has on the political process.
Explain a chart about the distribution of government benefits for children and the elderly from 1966 to 1986.
Block grants and federal mandates have an impact on the number of federal and state employees.
Social Security faces problems in the future.
Define what policy agenda is and how the media uses it to impact the political agenda.
Explain how the pattern changed when you look at a table that deals with how often viewers in different age groups watch the evening news.
The data-based questions require you to interpret, analyze, and evaluate a base of information and then to make conclusions related to specific questions.
In looking for the question you want to respond to, keep in mind that much of the data provided can be used as part of your answer.
The key terms in the question are highlighted.
Examples that show your understanding of the data are provided.
Just like the non- data-based free-response answer, you should identify the tasks and give examples.
The first part asks you to look at the number of viewers and percentage change from previous years.
The second part asks you to draw conclusions about the media's impact on the political system as a result of the trends discussed in the first part.
You can use the data and knowledge to complete the tasks.
The first televised presidential party conventions in 1952 were watched by 70 million people.
The Republicans and Democrats were covered by ABC, CBS, and NBC.
Between 1 and 2 hours of prime-time coverage was provided from the convention halls, as well as reports on nightly newscasts, current affairs programs, and morning news shows.
The four-night Republican convention in 1996 averaged 11 million homes per night, down 27 percent from the average of 16.2 million homes in 1988.
The Democrats averaged 13 million homes per night in 1996, down from 17 million in 1988.
The 2000 Democratic National Convention averaged more viewers than the 1996 Republican National Convention.
This included the cable news networks.
The Democratic National Convention had an average TV audience of 15.3 million viewers, while the Republican National Convention had an average audience of 16 million.
This included the cable news networks.
The Republican and Democratic National Conventions were covered by television networks.
Since the beginning of the broadcasts of the convention, the nature of the coverage has changed dramatically.
The media's role in the coverage of the convention is still very important.
Since 1988, the major networks have decreased their coverage of the national nominating conventions.
There has been a downward trend of viewers from 1952 to 2004.
There was a decline in network coverage of the convention.
It is interesting to note that despite the downward trend in coverage and viewers, a significant percentage of TV households still viewed some of the conventions listed in the data.
During the nominating convention, it reaches a peak.
Since 1952, the total hours devoted to coverage has declined, but television networks still give the political parties an opportunity to showcase their candidates.
Both political parties have been given equal coverage by the media, and they have chosen specific aspects of the convention to cover.
Gavel-to-gavel coverage was the norm in the early days of convention broadcasting.
Network correspondents were accused of inventing stories because of the large gaps of time when little was going on.
Significant parts of the convention were selected by the networks to be broadcasted.
Governor Cuomo's stirring speech in 1980, the nominating speeches in 1988 and 1992, and the actual acceptance speeches are some of the most widely covered events of the convention.
The choice of vice-presidential candidates and the demonstrations that take place both inside and outside the convention arena are issues that the media is aware of.
Gregory Lee Johnson burned a flag at the Republican National Convention in Texas in 1984 and the Chicago riots in 1968.
The media coverage at the Democratic and Republican Conventions in 1996 and 2000 changed.
Both parties tried to arrange the live television coverage.
Colin Powell and Elizabeth Dole gave speeches at the Republican convention that were compared to Oprah Winfrey presentations.
In 1996 the Democrats stopped any dissent from being heard on television.
The major networks continued to cut back in their coverage of the 2000 convention as the audience reached an all-time low.
The Republicans met in Philadelphia and staged a convention for George W. Bush that was highly orchestrated and put a united and diverse face on the Republican Party.
The Democrats had a more difficult task when they met in Los Angeles.
The media focused on Al Gore's passionate kiss as he attempted to separate himself from the outgoing president, while Bill Clinton's swan song was covered.
There has been a decline in the number of people watching political conventions.
The major networks have reduced their coverage.
As a result of cable news coverage, viewership increased slightly.
In 2004, more people watched the Republican Convention than the Democratic Convention.
Two points are earned for explaining how the media play a role in politics.
50 percent of the exam is worth four mandatory answers.
Write each answer within 25 minutes.
Data-based answers should make references to the information provided.
All answers should give evidence in the form of historical or contemporary examples.
All tasks are listed in the question.
There are questions about politics and government.
Understand the topics tested by reading questions carefully.
The interrelationship between two subjects may be explored in some questions.
The tasks will vary depending on the question.
One question may ask you to explain, while another may ask you to illustrate, describe, discuss, or list.
Do you want to list or identify?
In your response, you can use incomplete sentences, bulleted statements, or phrases.
The free-response answer requires you to understand the nature of the question, write a response that demonstrates an understanding of the question using specific examples, and develop a logical, coherent response.
The rater can easily read your response.
If you don't have time, outline the rest of your answer.