The patterns of French settlement were similar to those of Spain and Portugal.
The French were committed to missionary activity among the Amerindian peoples.
Jacques Cartier explored the region of Newfoundland and the Gulf of St. Lawrence in three voyages between 1534 and 1542.
Settlements in North America were established by the French more than fifty years ago.
New France was allied with the Huron.
New France was defeated by the powerful Iroquois Confederacy.
The balance of power between France's native allies and the Confederacy was tipped by French firearms and armor.
French settlement was fueled by the European market for fur.
Young Frenchmen were sent to live among native peoples to learn their languages and customs.
The Amerindi Amerindian heritage DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch The Amerindian peo culture of native peoples led to overhunting, which transformed the environment in North America.
It promoted warfare by increasing competition among native peoples for hunting grounds.
The indigenous warfare was more deadly because of the proliferation of firearms.
The increased military strength of France's Algonquin allies led to the creation of commercial and military links with Dutch and English settlements along the Hudson River.
The French were humiliated in a series of defeats by the Iroquois Confederacy in 1649.
The Great Lakes region and the Ohio River Valley were under the control of the Iroquois in the early 1680s.
The power of the Iroquois was checked in 1701 by a large French military expedition and relentless attack.
The economic foundation of early Canadian settlement was provided by the fur trade.
Fur traders were involved in the culture.
They brought European technologies and products to native peoples and to European settlers.
The canoe was adapted from the native craft by fur traders.
Missionaries mastered native languages, created boarding schools for young boys and girls, and set up model agricultural communities for converted Amerindians.
In the 1630s, a destructive wave of epidemics and renewed warfare caused by the Jesuits' greatest successes.
They established churches throughout the territories.
Native culture continued.
We have seen that of a hundred that have passed through our hands.
Population growth was slow even though the fur trade flourished.
Virginia had twenty times more European residents by 1627.
Canada's small population of settlers and the fur trade's dependence on Amerindians allowed indigenous peoples to retain more independence and control over their traditional lands than was possible in the colonies of Spain, Portugal, or England.
The French were compelled to treat the indigenous peoples as allies and trading partners, unlike the colonial regimes, which sought to transform ancient ways of life or force the transfer of native lands.
The French and Indian War changed the map of North America.
Conflicts between the Amerindian peoples and the British colonies were caused by France's losses.
Louisiana was founded in 1699, but by 1708 there were less than 300 soldiers, settlers, and slaves in the territory.
In 1753 a French official reported a Choctaw leader as ters and strong local political traditions.
Indentured servitude and slavery were important to the economic development of France's North American colonies.
The colonies of New ENG Indian War led to the wider land and the Middle Atlantic region.
Despite early defeats, England took the commercial relations with native peoples and committed a larger military force in North America.
England gained control of the ment and forced France to give up Canada east of the Mississippi.
One Canadian indigenous leader commented to a British officer after the French surrender, "We learn that our lands are to be given away not only to trade thereon but also."
It would be very difficult to accept that we will become slaves, since we have always been free.
The French concentrated their efforts on their sugar producing colonies in the Caribbean after Canada's loss.
In the last decades of the 17th century, almost all of the European colonies in the Americas experienced population growth.
The imperial powers strengthened their control of their colonies in the next century.
They wanted colonial populations to pay more of the costs of defense and administration.
There were a number of imperial wars fought along Atlantic trade routes and in the Americas.
The loss of the North American colonies in 1763 was one of the most important results of these struggles.
The colonial populations of the Americas became more aware of their national identities and were more aggressive in asserting local interests.
Charles II died without an heir in 1700, ending Spain's Habsburg dynasty.
Philip of Bourbon, grandson of Louis XIV of France, gained the Spanish throne after thirteen years of conflict.
Spain reorganized its administration and tax collection under Philip V and his family.
The navy of Spain was strengthened to protect colonial trade.
The Spanish Empire experienced a period of rapid population growth in the 18th century.
The flow of Spanish immigrants increased and the slave trade to plantation colonies was expanded as Amerindian populations recovered from the early epidemics.
Silver production rose into the 1780s.
Tobacco, dyes, hides, chocolate, cotton, and sugar are some of the agricultural exports that expanded.
The Spanish and Portuguese kings wanted to transfer some church wealth to their treasuries in order to reduce the power of the Catholic Church.
There were confrontations between the church hierarchy and colonial officials.
The Jesuits symbolized the power of the church to the kings of Portugal and Spain.
The Portuguese king expelled the order from his territories in 1759.
The king of Spain followed this decision.
These actions forced Jesuits from their native lands and closed schools that educated members of the colonial elite.
There were violent confrontations with Spanish administrators due to consumer and producer resentment.
The reforms were seen by the residents of the empire as a more intrusive and expensive government that had overthrown the informal constitution.
The Spanish effort to recruit local elites as military officers to improve imperial defense gave some colonial residents an opportunity for higher social status and greater responsibility.
The largest Inca aristocracy led a rebellion against the Spanish in the 18th century.
He was captured and received his education from the Jesuits and had close ties to the local bishop and other power executed with his wife and colonial authorities.
He was involved in colonial trade.
His family did not include other members.
Female slaves and black free women dominated retail markets in many of the cities of colonial Latin America.
Afro-Brazilian women are selling a variety of foods and crafts.
creoles, mestizos, and slaves were attracted to his cause.
After his capture in 1781, the Spanish executed him along with his wife and fifteen other family members and allies.
By the time Spanish authority was reestablished, more than 100,000 lives had been lost.
After 1700, Brazil experienced a similar period of expansion and reform.
Portugal gave monopoly companies exclusive rights to little-developed regions.
In 1707 there was an open warfare between local-born "sons of the soil" and "outsiders" after the colonial government imposed new taxes.
The ministry of the marquis of Pombal had the most aggressive period of reform.
The reforms were financed by the discovery of gold and diamonds in Brazil.
Brazil's exports of minerals as well as coffee and cotton deepened dependence on the slave trade, and nearly 2 million African slaves were imported in the 18th century.
The Bourbon initiative in Spanish America began earlier than England's efforts to reform and reorganize its North American colonies.
The Stuart king, Charles II, undertook an ambitious campaign to gain greater control over the colonies after Cromwell's Puritan Republic.
Between 1651 and 16 73 a series of Acts sought to severely limit colonial trading and production that competed directly with English manufacturers.
Replacing colonial charters and proprietorships was one of the ways England tried to increase royal control over colonial political life.
The king granted new fiscal and legislative powers to the governors of the New England colonies because he viewed them as centers of smuggling.
The Catholic proprietor of Maryland was removed by the colonials.
William and Mary were able to restore peace, but they were also able to alert the colonials to the potential aggression of the English government.
Until the American Revolution, colonial politics would remain combative.
The English colonies experienced renewed economic growth and attracted a new wave of European immigration, but social divisions were evident.
The colonial population was more vulnerable to economic downturns because they were more divided by class and race.
England defeated France in the 18th century in order to impose reforms on their American colonies.
The cost was great.
Administrative, military, and tax policies imposed to gain this disrupted colonial economic and political empire-wide victory and led to rebellion and resistance.
Spain, Portugal, France, and England were all part of the New World colonial empire.
Large numbers of enslaved Africans were introduced by all the Amerindian peoples.
The natural environment was altered by European settlement and the introduction of Old World animals and plants.
The native populations were devastated by Old World diseases, such as smallpox.
Colonists applied the technologies of the Old World to the resources of the New, producing mineral and agricultural wealth and exploiting the commercial possibilities of the emerging Atlantic market in ways that accelerated the integration of Europe, Asia, and America.
The cultural and institutional heritages of the New World empires reflected their colonizing power.
Spain was able to develop the most centralized empire because of the mineral wealth, with political and economic power concentrated in great cities.
Brazil's agricultural economy, based on sugar, and France's Canadian fur trade did not produce the financial resources and levels of centralized control achieved by Spain.
Unlike Britain, the three Catholic powers were able to impose and enforce significant levels of religious and cultural homogeneity.
British North America was characterized by greater cultural and religious diversity.
All of Britain's religious traditions, as well as from Germany, Sweden, the Netherlands, and France, came to the colonies from the British Isles.
British colonial government was more responsive to local interests.
British colonies in North America were better able to respond to changing economic and political circumstances and influence government policies than those in Spain, Portugal, and France.
The British colonies attracted more European immigrants than the other New World colonies.
Between 1580 and 1760, French colonies received 60,000 European immigrants, Brazil 523,000 and the Spanish colonies 678,000.
Between 1600 and 1760, the British settlements welcomed 746,000.
British North America's population had reached 2.5 million by 1775.
A good introduction to what happens when a new domestic species is introduced.
The study of cross-Atlantic society in North America is being done by Pioneering.
The study of European New World empires is essential.
Quoted by R. Douglas Francis, Richard Jones, and Don M. Bumsted.
The juice of sugar cane is boiled down in a building next to the windmill.
Caribbean colonies became the largest producers of sugar in the world by the 18th century.
The private expansion of sugar agriculture in the 17th century gave rise to a new era in the African slave trade.
The human cost of sub-Saharan Africa's expanding con slaves from Africa increased as larger and faster ships carried growing numbers.
The captain and officers of the ship were invited to the king of Whydah's house to discuss the prices for slaves.
The naked captives were carefully inspected by the doctor of the ship to make sure they were free of disease.
The crew put shackles on the men to prevent them from escaping.
The crew was given boiled corn meal and beans from Europe and hot peppers and palm oil from Africa to keep the slaves healthy.
Each slave was given half a liter of water for every meal.
The slaves were made to jump and dance for an hour or two to our bagpipe, harp, and fiddle every evening to keep them fit.
Deaths were common among the hundreds of people crammed into every corner of a slave ship, despite the incentives and precautions for keeping the cargo alive.
It lost more slaves and crew members to disease than any other voyage.
The net ing toll in African lives was far from a sure-fire money maker for European inves work of trading links after tors, who lost more than PS3,000 on the voyage.
The West Indies was the first place in the Americas reached by Columbus, and it was also the first region in the Americas where native populations collapsed from epidemics.
It took a long time to reestablish economic links with other parts of the Atlantic.
African slaves, sugar plantations, and European capital made these islands a major center of the Atlantic economy after 1650.
The colonies of the West Indies fell into neglect as attention shifted to colonizing the American mainland.
After 1600 the West Indies became a focus of colonization by northern Europeans who wanted to grow tobacco and other crops.
Many islands of the Antilles were settled by English and French people in the 1620s and 1630s.
Tobacco was the main source of income for the English colonies.
A new market for tobacco was found among Europeans in the 17th century.
Tobacco smoke spread despite the opposition of individuals like King James I of England who were against it.
In 1614, seven thousand shops in and around London sold tobacco.
The first tobacco colonies were attacked by native Caribs and the Spanish.
There were shortages of labor and supplies to clear land and plant tobacco.
Poor Europeans who were forced to work three or four years as indentured servants in France and England were paid an annual fee by these companies.
The French and English populations grew quickly in the exchange for a monopoly 1630s and 1640s.
Due to stiff competition from Virginia tobacco, the Caribbean colonies were in crisis over trade with the West Indies by the middle of the century.
This complex was introduced in Brazil.
Brazil was the world's greatest sugar producer by 1600.
The Dutch were early participants in the Brazilian sugar business.
The Spanish crown ruled Portugal and Brazil during the 17th century, threatening profitable commerce.
The Dutch government used some of the windfall from the charter of the Spanish treasure fleet in 1628 to attack Brazil's valuable sugar-production areas.
Much of Brazil's conduct was controlled by the Dutch company by 1635.
The Dutch improved the efficiency of Brazilian sugar over the next fifteen years.
The Dutch West India Company's entry into the African slave trade combined economic and political motives.
The Dutch shipped slaves to Brazil and the West Indies from these coasts.
The Dutch West India Company's headquarters remained in West Africa despite the Portuguese being able to drive the Dutch out of Angola.
After being free of Spanish rule in 1640, the Portuguese crown focused on reconquering Brazil and by 1654 had driven the last Dutch from that country.
The capital and knowledge of sugar production were moved to the Dutch Caribbean colonies by some of the expelled planters.
The French colonies of Guadeloupe and Martinique were revived by Dutch expertise and money, but the English colony of Barbados was destroyed by sugar.
European settlers grew most of the tobacco in 1640, both free and indentured.
African slaves were three times as many as Europeans by the 1680s.
The wealthiest and most populous of England's American colonies, Barbados exported up to 15,000 tons of sugar a year.
Brazil was the world's principal source of sugar by 1700.
Ten thousand slaves a year arrived from Africa in the first half of the 17th century.
They were destined for Brazil and the mainland Spanish colonies.
The trade averaged twenty thousand slaves in the second half of the century and most of them ended up in the English, French, and Dutch West Indies.
As sugar production increased and the Spanish colony of Cuba became a major importer of slaves, the volume of the Atlantic slave trade tripled.
African slaves are half as expensive.
Poor European men and women were willing to work for little in order to get to the Americas, where they could acquire their own land cheaply at the end of their term of service.
After the spread of sugar, speculators drove land prices in the West Indies so high that former indentured servants couldn't afford to buy it.
Poor Europeans indentured themselves in Britain's North American colonies, where cheap land was still available.
Caribbean sugar planters switched to slaves because they didn't want to raise wages.
Private investors in England and France helped the West Indian because of rising sugar prices.
The Dutch were more profitable.
The planters switched to favoring large plantations over smaller operations because of the high labor costs.
The flow of indentured laborers was diverted to North America.
France and England expanded their holdings in the Caribbean to find more land for sugar plantations.
The English seized Jamaica from the Spanish in 1655.
Havana, Cuba, was taken in 1762 and held for a year.
Cuba began to switch from tobacco to sugar production by the time the occupation ended.
The western half of Hispaniola was taken over by the French in the 1670s.
The power of the new Atlantic system is demonstrated by the technological, environmental, and social transformation of these island colonies.
The sugar made at the mill in the background was sealed in barrels and loaded on carts that oxen and horses used to go to the beach.
The barrels were taken to the ship that hauled them to Europe.
The painting has only one white person in it, which shows the importance of African labor.