Most women who worked outside the home were unskilled, low- paying jobs.
Only 4% of working women were professionals.
Accounting assis tants and department store clerks are some of the new vocations that some moved into.
The number of beauty shops increased from 5000 in 1920 to 40,000 in 1930.
The majority of women were either full time wives or mothers.
"supermarkets" offered year-round access to fruits, vegetables, and meats, which greatly reduced the traditional tasks of food preparation-- canning, baking bread, and plucking chickens.
African American and Latino women were 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Women of color usually work as maids, laundresses, or seam stresses on farms.
The freedom of women was limited by racism.
In 1919, an interracial couple from Massachusetts and New Hampshire got married in Concord, New Hampshire.
They checked into a hotel and walked to the courthouse to apply for a marriage license, but were told there was a five day waiting period.
They prepared for the wedding.
The service will be performed by the mayor of Concord.
Many residents of Ayer were angry with the news.
The mayor of Concord said he couldn't perform the wedding.
After being turned down several times, the betrothed couple found a minister willing to marry them.
The nation that Wilson led into war to make the world safe for democracy was still unsafe for those bold enough to cross the color line.
When war industries needed new workers, the mass movement accelerated.
Almost a million African Americans boarded trains for what they called the "promised land" up north in the 1920s.
New York City, Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, and others are large cities.
8 percent of the nation's black population lived outside the South in 1900.
Almost half of the nation's African Americans lived outside the South by 1970.
Richard Wright wrote that they were lured by the warmth of other suns-- better living conditions and better paying jobs.
For most of the time, they were treated better in the North than they were in the South, and educational opportunities for children were better in the North.
In populous states like New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Illinois, blacks gained more political leverage.
Oscar De Priest, a Chicago Republican, became the first black elected to Congress since Reconstruction in 1928, and the first from a northern district.
African Americans leave the South for jobs in New York, Chicago, and St. Louis in Jacob Lawrence's paintings.
The decision to leave their native South ended one set of troubles but created others.
The new arrivals were not always welcomed.
In densely populated northern cities, blacks who moved into established neighborhoods clashed with local ethnic groups who feared that the newcomers would take their jobs.
Many southern blacks were taken advantage of by white landlords and were often forced into substandard and segregation housing.
The injustice of the segre gated South still pales in comparison to the discrimination of the north.
Americans have been able to build new lives, new churches, new communities, new families and even new cultures with the help of the transplants.
The NAACP focused on legal action to bring the Four teenth and Fifteenth Amendments back to life.
The NAACP launched a campaign against lynch ing in 1919.
The bill to make mob murder a federal crime was defeated by southerners in the Senate.
Harlem is in northern Manhattan.
By 1930, one in nine people in Manhattan were African American, compared to one in seventy in 1890.
The "great, dark city" of Harlem has more blacks per square mile than any urban neighborhood in the nation.
Harlem became the cultural capital of African American life because of their numbers.
Harlem writers and artists were ready to express their dark skinned selves without fear or shame.
We are happy if white people are happy.
The first black Rhodes Scholar was the guiding spirit of the new African American culture.
Locke was less than five feet tall and weighed 95 pounds, but he was the champion of the Harlem Renaissance.
In 1925, he announced that the Harlem Renaissance was led by a self- confident "new Negro" who no longer felt inferior to white culture or imprisoned by a sense of grievance against the Jim Crow system of white supremacy.
He argued that blacks could change their future by using the arts.
The writer "Dean" of the Harlem lem Renaissance was active in the Har and the philosopher Women.
A Renaissance sits at a desk in his office in 1925.
Black artists in the Harlem Renaissance used their African roots and collective history as inspiration.
Augusta Savage wanted to challenge negative views of African Americans.
An aspiring writer and inventive storyteller, she was the first African American to enroll at the women's college of Columbia University, where she majored in cultural anthropology.
As the need arose, she reinvented herself and mastered the art of survival.
Motherless at nine and a runaway at fourteen, she became a calculating opportunist.
She came to Har lem to immerse herself in the city life.
Within a few months, she was acting as the queen of the Harlem Renaissance, writing short stories and plays, and positioning herself at the center of the community's rowdy social life.
In the face of white bigotry and violence, African Americans in the Lower South forged cohesive communities.
They were proud to be Americans who had African ancestry, even though they were divided by their heritage.
African Americans for three centuries had shared the same cultural background, the same system, and the same standard of beauty as whites.
Harlem Renaissance writers produced dozens of novels and volumes of poetry, several Broadway plays, and a flood of short stories, essays, and films by 1930.
Marcus Gar vey claimed to speak for 400 million blacks.
Gar vey started the Universal Negro Improvement Association in Jamaica two years before he brought it to Harlem.
The largest black political organization in the U.S. is the UNIA.
Garvey claimed that the UNIA had as many as 4 million members.
He wanted to build a black empire in Africa.
The Jamaican was married to a white person.
Some black leaders were appalled by Garveyism.
Garvey was labeled the most gerous enemy of the Negro race by Du Bois.
Garvey was convicted of fraud in 1923 for overselling shares of stock in the Black Star Line, which he had founded to transport American blacks to Africa.
He was pardoned in 1927 by Calvin Coolidge, who wanted him to be deported to Jamaica.
He received a hero's welcome when he arrived.
Intellectuals, writers, and artists who used new modes of expression and behavior to cope with an era of confusion and possibility were called the postmoderns.
The start of the twentieth century was seen as a historical hinge that opened the way for a new world view that rejected notions of reality and values.
New forms of artistic expression were adopted by the modernists.
Critics said that the self- described modernists were ruining literature.
The Modernists claimed that they were acknowledging the arrival of a new way of viewing life and expressing its rowdy energy.
Albert Einstein was one of the greatest minds of the 20th century, and he was responsible for a fundamental change in understanding the operations of the universe.
His theories about the fluid interplay of space, time, matter, energy, and gravity caused traditional notions of a sta ble universe to wobble.
Einstein published papers in 1905 that changed science forever while at the same time being contrary to common sense.
Einstein was one of the most influential scientists of the twentieth century and he received a prize for his work.
The theoretical basis for quantum physics would lead to new electronic technologies such as television, laser beams, and Semiconductor used to make computers and cell phones.
In his second paper, Einstein confirmed the existence of mole cules and atoms by showing how their random collisions explained the motions of minute particles in water.
Traditional notions of the universe were overturned in his third paper.
Einstein's theory of relativity states that the light beam will appear the same regardless of how fast one is moving or how far away from it.
If a train were traveling at the speed of light, time would slow down from the perspective of those watching, and the train itself would get heavier.
Space and time are interdependent.
They form the fabric of space.
He was sitting in his office when he had a thought.
The general theory of relativity maintains that the fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and energy are not distinct, independent enti ties with stable and permanent dimensions.
They are interacting elements that are constantly changing.
It is not a force transmitted across space time like magnetism.
The geometry of that space- time itself keeps planets in their orbits around the sun.
The behavior of a bowling ball on the surface of a trampoline is similar to that of space- time.
There is a black hole of infinite density where gravity can stretch and grow.
The way scientists viewed the uni verse was changed by Einstein's discoveries.
The general theory of relativity was said to be one of the most significant by a British newspaper.
Einstein's concept of relativity shaped many of the intellectual, cultural, and social currents of the twentieth century, just as Darwinism became a bio logical theory but also a social, economic, and political point of view.
There was less faith in absolutes during the twenties as the idea of "relativity" emerged in discussions of topics such as sexu ality.
In 1920, an American journalist said that Einstein's theories had moved physics into the area of metaphysics, where paradoxes and magic take the place of solid fact.
The more scientists got into the universe and the atom, the more certainties dissolved.
The scientific breakthrough associated with Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein, and others helped to inspire and shape a "modernist" cultural revolution.
By the second decade of the twentieth century, cultural modernism had spread to the United States.
Modernity was the widespread awareness that new ideas and ways of doing things were making a sharp break with tradition, and that new technologies, modes of transportation and communication, and scientific discoveries were transforming the nature of everyday life.
The appeal of mod ernism was expanded by the horrors of the Great War.
The idea that God did not exist, that reality was not rational, orderly, or obvious, and that social progress could no longer be taken for granted were some of the assumptions that led to modernity.
Writers, artists, musicians, designers, and architects rebelled against good taste, old fashioned morals, and old- time religion because of these premises.
They refused to be conventional.
Doing so made their writing, art, music, and dance difficult to understand.
A British writer said that the pure modernist is a snob.
Being misunderstood was a badge of honor for many modernists.
In her private life, she became famous for hosting in her Paris salon the leading modernists from around the world.
Until the twentieth century, most writers and artists had taken for granted an accessible, identifiable world that could be easily observed, scientifi cal y explained.
Einstein's ideas about relativity were applied to a world in which reality no longer had an objective or recognizable basis.
Max Weber's painting is a take on a traditional subject.
The painting shows the impact of the theory of relativity on the arts and the scene of the performance.
For artists such as Spanish painter Picasso and Irish writer James Joyce, art involved an unpredictable journey into the realm of individual fantasies and dreams, exploring and expressing the personal, the unknown, the primitive, the abstract.
The representation of recognizable subjects was discarded in favor of vibrant color, simplified forms, and geometric shapes.
The International Exhibition of Mod ern Art opened in New York City in 1913.
It had 1,200 works and created a sensation.
It generated a lot of excitement.
An art magazine said a new world has arisen.
The show went to Chicago and Boston, where it attracted over flow crowds.
Many people found a new faith in the power of art after the Armory Show.
"America in spite of its newness is destined to become the center of the modern art movement," said Walt Kuhn, a painter who helped organize the exhibition.
The world's most celebrated collection of avant- garde paintings and sculpture can be found in the Museum of Modern Art.
The leading American authors of modern art and literature lived in England and Europe.
They were self- conscious revolutionaries concerned with strange, new, and often beautiful forms of expression, and they found more inspiration and more receptive audiences in Europe.
In bitter poems and earnest essays he denounced war and commercialism.
The author claimed that Pound was responsible for the movement in poetry.
The best mod ernist writers were recruited, edited, published, and reviewed by Pound.
One of the young American writers Pound took under his wing was recently graduated from Harvard.
Within a few years, Eliot became the leading American modernist.
There was a sense of postwar disillusionment and melancholy that had a powerful effect on other writ ers.
The American modern ists living in Paris had a champion in Gertrude Stein.
Stein was one of the main proponents of the triumphant subjectivity undergirding modern expression, and he was known as the literary eccentric who wrote "Rose is a rose is a rose."
She wanted to portray recognizable scenes from real life in a way that was not abstract.
The cul tural salon in Paris was a gathering place for American and European modernists.
The terribleness of the Great War influenced the arts and literature of the twenties.
Cynicism was thought to have displaced idealism in the wake of the war.
Those who had lost faith in the values and institutions of Western civilization were looking for new gods to worship.
She held her ground when Hemingway objected.
You are lost.
You don't have any respect for anything.
Jake Barnes is a young American who was castrated by a war injury.
He wanders the cafes and nightclubs of postwar Europe with his often- drunk friends, who acknowledge that they are all wounded and sterile in their own way.
They have lost their motivation to do anything.
To make it alive, Hemingway sought to get the feeling of the actual life across-- not just to depict life-- but to actual y.
Fitzgerald and Hemingway had the same goal.
He was the chronicler of the Lost Generation.
Like his fictional characters, Fitzgerald was delighted in the hard- drinking, party- going pace of the Jazz Age, and then flickered out in a fog of drunkenness.
The frivolity of the "upper tenth" of American society was depicted in his writings.
The novel dealt with misfortunes of the fortunate, such as self-destructive wealthy people who drank and partied as a means of medicating themselves to the pointlessness of their shallow lives.