Edited Invalid date
23 -- Part 9: The Revolution in Energy and
Women who had to support themselves protested against being excluded from all women and girls.
The girls and the women who had worked underground were generally pleased with the law if they were part of a family that could manage.
The house wasn't guided.
My mother Ann Eggley, Hurrier, 18 years old, has ten children, five boys and five girls, the oldest is thirty years old, the youngest is four, and three, and I don't know how to.
We go to the mill at four in the lasses and sometimes at half past four.
One of the hurriers lives at home and we get down.
We leave after four in the evening.
This illustration of a girl dragging a coal wagon was one that shocked the public and contributed to the Mines Act of 1842.
I get my breakfast of seven at five in the evening.
When Sir John was a carrier of coals, I took my dinner with me and ate it as I went, causing me to miscarry five times.
The last child was born for the purpose and I get nothing else until I get home on Saturday morning.
J. Bowditch and C. Ramsland edited it.
I see them at work when they pull their clothes off.
Sometimes they beat me, if I am not quick enough, with their hands, and they strike me with an old English unit of weight equaling 112 pounds.
The pattern of artisans working with hand tools in small shops remained the same despite technological change.
The British iron industry was dominated by large-scale capitalist firms by 1850.
The firms that fashioned iron into small metal goods, such as tools, tableware, and toys, employed fewer than ten wageworkers who used handicraft.
The northern factory districts had anti capitalist feelings by the 1820s.
One paper claimed that it was all the workers of England against a few masters in the woolen center of Bradford when they went on strike in 1824.
6 Modern technology and FAC tory organization created a few.
The class feeling could be created by the transformation of some traditional trades by organizational changes.
The law of 1563 regulating the wages and strikes was repealed by the Parliament in 1814, favoring the capitalist busi of artisans and the conditions of apprenticeship.
Aggressive capitalists ignored traditional work rules and tried to flood their trades with unorganized workers to beat down wages as skilled artisan workers were bitter and disreputable.
Many resented the capitalist attack on artisan guilds in 1824.
Workers ignored the Combination Acts.
Society of skilled factory workers organized unions.
To control the number of skil ed workers, to limit apprenticeship to members' own children, and to bar gain with owners over wages were all sought by unions.
The Combination Acts were repealed in 1824, but unions were not accepted after 1824.
The attempt to create a single large national union was the next stage in the development of the British trade-union movement.
The effort was not led by working people like Robert Owen.
Owen, a self-made cotton manufacturer, combined firm discipline with concern for health and safety.
He had a socialist and cooperative community in Indiana.
The Grand National Consolidated Trades Union was one of the largest and most visionary of the early national unions.
After Owen's and other grandiose schemes collapsed, the British labor movement moved once again in the direction of craft unions.
The unions won real benefits for their members by being fairly conservative.
British workers were involved in political activity in defense of their interests.
Many working people went into the Chartist movement after the collapse of Owen's national trade union.
Al men should be given the right to vote.
Workers were active in campaigns to limit the work day in factories to ten hours and to allow duty-free importation of wheat into Great Brit to secure cheap bread.
The new industrial system was shaped by working people who developed a sense of their own identity.
They were not helpless victims or passive beneficiaries.
The mass labor force of the Industrial Revolution was made up of millions of slaves who worked in European colonies in the Caribbean and North and South America.
Historians have debated how much revenue from slavery contributed to Brit ain's achievements in the Industrial Revolution.
They now agree that profits from colonial plantations and slave trading were a small portion of British income in the 18th century.
The impact of slavery on Britain's economy was not limited to direct profits.
The development of finance and credit institutions was a result of Britain's dominance in the slave trade.
Europe lags behind older and more sophisticated civilizations in China and the Middle East.
There was no reason to think that the West would achieve world dominance.
Europe had broken ahead of the other regions of the world in terms of wealth and power by 1800.
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