Positive Psychology of illness and death is related to our behaviors, such as eating and exercising.
Positive psychology approaches will be introduced to May Be Related health behavior.
Dramatic changes in the causes of death in the United States over the past century have led to a focus on how emotional reactions, social influences, and overt behaviors affect and Physical activity our health.
In 1900, the major causes of death were infectious diseases.
By the 1950's, changes in mass vaccina tions allowed Americans to avoid or at least recover from many of these diseases.
Our behavior has a big influence on how we feel.
Half the deaths in the United States might have been prevented by behavior changes.
Programs are developed to reduce risk factors related to diseases.
The virus that causes AIDS is still a problem.
Smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, excessive intake of diet fat, and strong emotional reactions to life events such as job loss or divorce are some of the new germs in our modern world.
There are major cultural differences in health and disease around the world because of behavior and lifestyle.
There is a list of behaviors that are related to good health.
You should not be surprised by these health-promoting behaviors.
They can become part of your daily routine despite it being difficult to initiate them.
You will be less likely to eat snack foods if you start the day by eating breakfast.
It becomes automatic once you start wearing your seat belt.
A healthy lifestyle includes all of these behaviors.
Research on resilience and the establishment of positive psychology has been spurred by growing interest in health, stress, and cope with fast-paced world.
It's clear that resilience is an important aspect of cope.
Get your weight to normal.
Follow a healthful diet.
If you drink alcohol, do it in moderation.
Get the amount of sleep your body needs.
Every time you are in a vehicle, use seat belts.
Do not drive too fast.
Women and men need to get regular breast exams.
You can communicate effectively with a physician.
If you are resilient, you do not just survive a traumatic situation, you grow psychologically as a result.
If you find yourself in a crisis situation, there are things you can do that will help you and those around you.
In a time of crisis, you can reach out to others and get assistance and advice.
You can use rituals and routines to provide structure and meaning.
psychology is a fairly negative field if you stop and think about it.
For example, psychologists have spent a lot of time evaluating and treating people with mental disorders.
Positive psychology research focuses on three areas: positive emotions, positive individual differences, and positive institutions.
Positive psychology does not seek to replace any area of psychology; rather, it seeks to supplement our knowledge and understanding of the broad field of psychology.
The hypothalamus signals alarm, resistance, and exhaustion to the sympathetic nervous system during this call to arms.
The body is prepared for a brief period of physical action in response to a threat when the sympathetic nervous system and stress hormones are activated.
Our ancestors were well prepared for physical actions because of the fight-or-flight response.
Today's response is not always useful.
Our biological equipment and responses to stressors are the same as those of our ancestors, even though modern stressors do not call for physical responses.
Our ability to endure the orig inal stressor is enhanced by the moderate level of arousal in the body.
If new stressors are introduced, the ability to resist them decreases.
Problems with a roommate can affect your ability to resist new stressors, and they may also reduce the ability of your immune system to fight a virus.
Students were exposed to one of several types of respiratory viruses by Cohen and his colleagues.
Students who were experiencing high levels of stressors were more likely to develop colds.
It is not a myth that high levels of stress can make us more vulnerable to colds.
The stress response has lost its adaptive quality and contributes to pathological changes that result in dis ease.
High levels of heart rate and blood pressure increase the risk of heart disease.
The stress response suppresses the body's immune system, which makes us more vulnerable to diseases.
Asthma, high blood syndrome, and other diseases have been linked to stress.
Certain diseases are influenced by our inability to adapt to stress.
Stress is something that can be avoided.
Stress can impair your performance on exams and papers, but it can also provide the energy and enthusiasm to propel you to a first-rate performance.
Consider an example.
She is getting ready for her first performance with the symphony.
During the opening performance of the symphony season, she will be performing a French horn solo.
She was not able to sleep the night before, and she had not eaten in a while.
She knows that she has to do well in this performance.
She can feel the thrill in her body when she's on stage.
During her horn solo, she plays perfectly and feels very happy.
The fight-or-flight response and an activation of the sympathetic nervous system were what she was experiencing right before her solo.
The stress is positive and the arousal is pleasant.
This arousal can lead to emotional or intellectual growth.
We should find ways to channel the stress response more effectively if we want to avoid stress altogether.
Some events are easier to avoid than others.
We are at the mercy of sudden, unpredictable catas trophes, such as fires and hurricanes, and we may experience major changes in our lives.
In addition, every day we have minor irritations, such as a careless driver backs into our car and a malfunctioning toast.
Our sense of well-being and health can be affected by minor annoy ances.
Our ability to adapt is tested by catastrophes.
Natural disasters such as fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and tornados can cause a lot of destruction.
A growing number of disasters are caused by human error, such as having to wait in lines.
Dave has never experienced any ill nesses.
He lost his job, the family home was damaged by a tornado, and his daughter was killed in an automobile accident.
Dave decided to see his doctor after experiencing insomnia, dizziness, and loss of appetite.
He wondered if his symptoms were caused by the life events he had recently experienced.
The scale was created to measure the amount of adjustment needed after a major life event.
People with high scores reported more illnesses than people with low scores.
This finding supports the idea that too much change is bad for us.
When investigators could not duplicate the original strong relations, the excitement turned to skepticism.
The relation between major life events and illness was not as strong as was reported.
People who are exposed to a lot of life events don't develop physical or psy chological symptoms.
There are reasons why people differ in their responses to life events.
Imagine that you and your roommate have exams next week.
Before reading further, write down your answer.
The circumstances of a divorce can determine whether it is viewed positively or negatively.
Culture plays a role in how people view major life events.
Compared with Americans and Japanese Europeans, they gave less rat ings to divorce.
Imagine beinglted at a set of symptoms that may follow the altar.
Research has shown that the number and magnitude of life change events can affect the recovery rate of medical patients.
It is not surprising to find people from different cultures living in foreign countries.
The United States has a large number of refugees and immigrants.
It would be difficult for an American who was raised in the individualism of the United States to emigrate to a collectivist society such as Japan.
Acceptance of the values and customs of the new culture results in the best adaptation according to many researchers.
The experts argue that the stress of trying to deny the new culture is less than the stress of adopting new values and customs.
While reliving a shocking event in dreams, flashbacks, or intrusive thoughts is the primary symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder.
People who suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder find it difficult to concentrate, suffer from sleep problems, and feel guilty.
Imagine if you had to treat victims of bomb attacks with dismemberment for months on end, or if you witnessed a person commit sui cide by jumping in front of a bus.
It would be difficult to get such images out of your head and you might experience some physical effects due to your experiences.
The sympathetic nervous system and hormonal changes of many victims of PtsD can not be seen.
Disasters that would not have evoked a response such as a devastating tornado now evoke cognitive and physical responses as if the original trauma was also their rescuers.
Rescue workers can be an exaggerated startle response to sound, which did not occur in veterans or civilians summoned to the scene of a horrible without post-traumatic stress disorder (Morgan, Grillon, Southwick, Davis, & Charney, 1996).
The data presented by Bonanno shows how many deal with the human tragedies they observe firsthand.
There are people who are exposed to potentially traumatic events who are rescued here.
Some researchers studied tornados that hit alabama.
Even though minor alarms may be associated with stress, psychologists have found that they can become associated with physical and psychological problems.
The risk of death from cardiovascular disease can be increased by anxiety and anger.
The effect of several minor daily annoyances can accumulate and raise the levels of your body's stress hormones, which are released early in the GAS.
Maintaining a positive emotional style is one way to do that.
The only reaction that kicked into gear was when you lost the only reaction.
Your interpretation of copy of your term can have a huge impact on your paper.
The release of stress hormones and the actions of the sympathetic nervous system can cause anger if you focus on damage, costs, and other things.
Imagine if you took a moment to reexamine the situation.
The physical response to the same event will be different if you adopt this approach.
This is where the perspective of posi harm, a threat, harm, a threat, can be informative.
One's ability to cope with stressors appears to be influenced by optimism.
The immune system is referred to as a sense organ because it is supposed to "sense" cells and substances that aren't in the body.
The organs and cells that make up this complex system are located throughout the body.
The immune system needs to distinguish between cells that are part of the organisms and those that are not.
The immune system can become too active and attack harmless cells if it fails to make this distinction.
A person can become vulnerable to a range of diseases if the immune system is impaired.
The immune system is able to remove foreign invaders from the body.
The term focuses on the brain, immune system, and endocrine system.
We know that stress leads to the release of hormones in the sympathetic nervous system.
In the P.S., these hormones help us resist stress.
The writer of this letter is absolutely correct that long-term stressors, such as being a caregiver for an Alzheimer's patient, are also associated.
The effects of stress on the immune system can change with age, as older adults show even greater immune system stress the same event can be.
The researchers found that high levels of life change were associated with health and il ness.
To find the causes of death for family situations, you need to identify the gas stage described in each of the following.
What is the body's response to someone leaving the house?
Midterms are in school.
Accidents and illnesses can happen at any time.
We can't control how it results from chance or genetic factors.
Our decisions to engage in cer tain behaviors can have a profound effect on our health.
In Table 14-1, you can see that deaths due to lifestyle factors have risen.
Several behaviors can affect our risk of diseases.
Smoking, the development of heart disease, and AIDS are some of the topics covered in this section.
We talked about the effects of nutrition and eating behaviors in Chapter 7.
Smoking-related illnesses are the leading cause of death and illness in the United States.
Smoking's role as a lifestyle factor is reflected in the fact that over 430,000 smoking-related deaths are reported each year.
A single cigarette puffs causes a release of nicotine in your brain, which causes a rise in your heart rate and blood pressure.
The effects of nicotine and tar on the heart can cause cancer, heart disease, and pulmonary diseases over time.
Few people who have smoked regularly for a year or more find it easy to quit.
There are consequences of smoking even for non-smokers.
About 20% of US adults continue to smoke despite warnings.
4,000 American ado lescents begin smoking cigarettes each day despite the fact that the num ber of smokers has been declining.
The rate of decline is greater for men than it is for women.
The rate of smoking among Americans with less education is declining at a slower rate than those with more education.
The United States has a decline in the number of smokers.
One in three cigarettes smoked in the world are smoked in China.
Smoking begins in adolescence.
The majority of smokers smoked their first cigarette before the age of 18.
The smokIng haBIt.
Most people stop smoking several times before they quit for good, according to Shiffman et al.
People who finally quit go through several steps in order to collect information about quitting.
The process continues until the smoker is sensitive to the drawbacks of smoking, such as the death of a close friend or family member.
Although a variety of aids and programs are available to help people stop smoking, about 90% of ex-smokers quit on their own.
The fear of gaining weight is one of the reasons smokers don't quit.
Paul, who has been smoking for years, met us at the beginning of the section.
He is afraid he will gain weight if he quits.
Weight gain is a fact after quitting smoking.
After quitting, men and women gain an average of 6 and 8 pounds, respectively.
Smoking 15 or more cigarettes a day increases the risk of gaining weight.
Smoking increases the number of calories burned, which in turn suppresses weight gain.
People who stop smoking burn less calories.
Ex smokers will burn more calories if they increase their physical activity and limit their intake of high fat and sugar foods.
Depression, insomnia, headaches, anxiety, concentration difficulties, and increased appetite can all be caused by the sudden cessation of smoking and the elimination of nicotine from the body.
People who are heavily dependent on nicotine can reduce the symptoms of withdrawal by using one of several methods of supplement ing nicotine while they are quitting.
One can choose from several nicotine replacement methods.
The nicotine patch and nico tine gum have been shown to increase cessation rates.
According to Table 14-1, heart disease is the number one killer in the United States.
Although most of the research on heart disease has been done on men, it is important to realize that both men and women are susceptible to heart disease.
High blood pressure is a risk factor for heart disease and occurs at a higher rate among African Americans.
The difference in hypertension is most pronounced between urban African Americans and rural Nigerians, which suggests that the disease is primarily one of mod ern life.
The rate of heart disease is lower in Japan than in the United States.
There is research done on Japanese Americans.
Those who were described as "traditionally Japanese" had lower rates of heart disease that were comparable to those of Japanese people living in Japan.
The group that was the least Japanese had a higher incidence of heart disease.
Several risk factors for heart disease can be modified in order to prevent deaths from heart disease.
The opening in the two arteries is different.
Men are more likely to have heart attacks earlier in life than women.
More than half of heart attack victims are over the age of 65.
Smokers are more likely to die within an hour after cardiac arrest.
How quickly cessation smoking reduces the risk of heart disease is a topic of debate.
The risk of heart disease is raised by high blood pressure in combination with other risk factors.
Lower rates of heart disease are associated with higher HDl levels.
Those with male-type (apple-shape) Obesity are at higher risk than those with female-type (pear-shape) Obesity.
Obesity is related to other risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and physical activity.
Excess weight and higher cholesterol can be caused by physical inactivity and over eating.
In childhood, this process begins.
A special Institute of Medicine committee called for measures to counter the rising rates of childhood obesity.
Our fast-food culture and its stress on "supersizing" portions make this task difficult.
Susan Bennett, a registered dietician with the Texas Department of Health, put the seriousness of child Obesity in bold perspective by saying that if an answer to this Obesity Epi demic is not found soon, for the first time in this century, the prespiratory generation of children will not live as
There are other behaviors that can lead to heart disease.
Powell and the creators syndicate.
Some researchers thought that some of the characteristics that make up Type A behavior might be related to heart disease, but others weren't.
The "toxic" component of the behavior was identified as the focus of research.
The candidates seem to be hostile and anxious, which have been linked to early death.
Hostile individuals tend to see the behavior of others as intended to provoke or harm them, so they often act with others in an unfriendly manner.
They respond quickly and strongly to potential threats, but they also release more stress hormones during the day.
The questions describe a situation that you might encounter.
Imagine how you would react in that situation.
Two responses, A or B, are sent after each situation to describe how that situation might affect you.
Both responses may appear equally desirable in some cases.
Pick the one response that is more likely for you in that situation.
When the light turns green, a car in front of you hesitates to start moving.
Then hit your horn.
They may have been distracted by changing a radio station.
You get a call as you sit down for dinner.
If you answer the phone, you will be cut off by a telemarketer and you will have to hang up.
When you answer the phone, kindly tell the telemarketer that you are not going to talk to them and then leave.
You are walking down a busy sidewalk in a rush to get to work when you are behind a family of four.
Wait for them to move over so you can pass.
When you squeeze through the family, look back and give the parents an angry look; then as you walk on, you think about how much slow people annoy you.
You are waiting in an express line at the grocery store to pick up some milk.
A woman in front of you is chasing food.
She pulls out a checkbook when the time is right to pay.
Who uses checks these days?
It takes a long time to write a check.
You just finished dinner at a restaurant and are waiting for your check to arrive.
You have been waiting for 10 minutes.
The server is going to lose money.
I have seen the server pass by three times and not notice that I am ready for my check.
I'll get the check soon.
Each time your answer agrees with the letter, give yourself a point.
The higher you score, the more likely you are to react to certain situations in a violent manner.
Many heart attack victims can be changed by Type A behavior.
If you keep a daily log of your cynical, hostile, and distrustful thoughts, you can reduce your risk.
They can apply the lessons we learned about the appraisal of potential stressors.
In Chapter 7 (Motivation and Emotion), we talked about the growing problem of Obesity in the United States and around the globe.
type II diabetes is a lifestyle disease that is related to being overweight.
The child and adolescent population has seen the growth of type II diabetes.
Approximately 25% of obese adults were overweight as children and, even more alarming, a full 80% of children who were overweight before the age of 15 were obese by the age of 25.
The prevalence rates spiked in the 1990s and early 2000s, but now appear to be stable.
The prevalence of type II diabetes in our children is growing.
The inability for blood sugar to enter the cells properly leads to a build up in the blood stream.
The inability to enter the cells has been linked to the fact that the body doesn't make enoughinsulin or the cells begin to resist its effects.
The highest prevalences of type II diabetes in children are in Native American and low-income populations.
Damage to blood vessels, the heart, nerve cells, kidneys, and the eyes are all caused by type II diabetes.
There are a lot of problems and amputations.
The strain on our medical system has increased due to the effects of type II diabetes, with an estimated annual cost of 1 trillion dollars.
Recommendations focus on family lifestyle and interactions that help to prevent childhood obesity.
Table 14-4 contains these recommendations.
Parents must be willing to be role models of healthy behavior if they are to expect their children to engage in healthy behavior.
A virus that can be contracted through the transfer of semen.
Don't depend on prepared/take out food.
When possible, plan and eat meals with your family.
The disease can be transmitted via bodily fluids.
Instead of watching TV for hours at a time, play together indoors or outdoors.
Children need at least 9 hours of sleep a night.
It was published by the University California Press.