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27 -- Part 11: Nation Building in the Americas
The United States was also helped by its size.
The United States had advantages from the beginning due to the fact that a single country was formed by the original thirteen colonies in North America.
It had room to expand west into territory with many advantages, including a warm climate and abundant land and mineral resources.
The United States became the largest of the new countries in population because of its original size.
Canada had more land than any other country, but it was too far north for agriculture.
If Simon Bolivar had succeeded in forming a union of the Spanish-speaking countries of South America, the United States might have seen some of the ad views of their size.
It was important for the United States to remain a supplier for Europe of raw materials and basic commodities, but they were quick to industrialize.
There are many reasons that can be suggested.
It had a lot of resources such as iron, coal, petroleum, and fertile land.
The government put few obstacles in the way of those who built the great enterprises.
The United States placed high tariffs on imports to discourage imports of European goods and to foster its own industries.
It was easy to attract both capital and immigrants from abroad.
The United States rewarded self-made men and encouraged innovation.
The most important advances in industrial technology were made in Europe at the beginning of the 19th century, but they were likely to come from the United States by the beginning of the 20th.
Henry Ford developed the assembly line and the United States introduced streetcars.
What accounts for the similarities and the advantages of learning became clearer as it attracted more immigrants.
It wasn't easy for countries further behind to catch up.
The century leading up to World War I was a time of nation building.
Slavery was ended, the colonial governments were overthrown, new constitutions were written, and immigrants were welcomed.
There was reason to be optimistic about the future of these countries on the eve of World War I.
It wasn't hard to point to signs of progress in most of them, even though wealth was not evenly distributed.
The topic of World War I affected these countries in many ways.
Canada and Australia sent hundreds of thousands of men to fight in some of the bloodiest battles of the war.
The United States did not join the war until 1917, but quickly mobilized several mil ion men and began sending soldiers and materials in huge numbers.
The economic impact of the war was felt by the countries that maintained neutrality, especially the Latin American countries.
The war had a positive side for them.
The topics of the next chapter are how the war was started, expanded, and concluded.
You can do these exercises online.
There are some basic terms about this period.
A more advanced understanding of the chapter material is required for the exercise below.
The chart below shows the development of the United States and the independent nations of Latin America in the 19th century.
Now that you've reviewed key elements of the chapter, try to see the bigger picture.
In your answers, use specific examples from the chapter.
Imagine that you have to explain Chapter 27 to someone who hasn't read it.
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