The oxidation basic is the solution in the blue + 2 and + 3 oxidation states.
Green solution contains V3+, good oxidizing agents, which are the most compounds with vanadium in its highest oxidation state.
Vanadium is a violet solution reducing agent in its oxidation state.
The range of action of an invisible oxide coating makes chrome metal hard and bright.
Because of its resistance to corrosion, the colors found in it are used a lot.
Write a balanced equation if that is the case.
Both happen in acidic solution.
One Edeg value is found in Table 23.4 and the other in Table 19.1.
The Edeg values are combined to get a value for Edegcell.
It's possible that MnO 4 1aq2 could be used to oxidize VO2 to VO + 2.
Data from Tables 19.1 and 23.4 can be used to determine if nitric acid can be used to oxidize V3 and VO2 in standard state conditions.
Write a balanced equation if it's true.
V(s) must not be reduced to V(s).
The steel is chrome- plated.
The plated material is porous and thin.
Unless the steel is first plated with copper or nickel, it tends to develop cracks.
This layer is plated with chromium for protection and decorative purposes.
Large quantities of electric energy are required for chrome-plating compared to other types of metal.
A variety of oxidation states are dependent on other species solution, each having a different color.
If 3Cl-4 is high, 3Cr1H2O2643+ is converted to O.S.
The violet color changes to green.
The oxides and hydroxides of chromium are in line with the principles of acid-base behavior.
Pure chromium reacts with H2SO41aq2 The surface of the metal may be altered by Nitric acid and other oxidizing agents.
The oxidation state of the red oxide is also observed.
The oxide dissolved in water and produced a strong acidic solution.
The expected chromic acid, H2CrO4, has never been isolated in the pure state and is not the product of the reaction.
The solution turns the color from orange to yellow.
The equations follow.
As a function of 3H+4, the relative amounts of the two ion can be calculated.
A basic solution can be used to make metal chromates.
It is not a good oxidizer.
Poor precipitating agents but excellent oxidizing agents are used in a variety of industrial processes.
In the chrome leather tanning process, animal hides are immersed in Na2Cr2O71aq2, which is then reduced by SO21g2 to the basic chromic sulfate, Cr1OH2SO4.
Dichromates can be reduced to Cr2O3.
In the case of ammonium dichro mate, heating the compound causes a dramatic reaction.
The products of the reaction are H2O1g2 and N21g2.
Light and heat are also evolved.
The solution on the left is made by dissolving chromium metal.
Within minutes, the oxygen in the air oxidizes the Cr2 to green.
The reduction of Cr(III) com pounds with zinc in acidic solution can be used to prepare Van Loon Chromium(II) compounds.
Reducing power is the most distinctive feature of the compounds.
The oxidation of Cr2+1aq2 occurs readily.
In a reaction similar to the thermite reaction, 4 Cr3 + 2 H2O1l2 Edegcell can be obtained in small amounts.
About 1% of Earth's crust is comprised of the element Manganese Manganese.
A mixture of iron and carbon can be reduced to obtain ferromanganese.
The purification of iron involves reacting with sulfur and oxygen and removing them through slag formation.
It increases the strength of steel.
It is extremely tough and wear resistant to use steel with high proportions of Mn.
3Ar43d54s2 is the electron configuration of Mn.
oxidation-reduction reactions are the most important reactions.
Its disproportionation is spontaneously unstable.
If 3OH-4 is kept high, the following reaction can be reversed, which means that manganate ion can be maintained as a stable species.
It is used in dry-cell batteries, in glass and ceramic glazes, and as a catalyst.
When MnO2 is heated in the presence of an oxidizer, a salt is produced.
The laboratory oxi dizing agent is Potassium permanganate.
It is used in acidic solutions for chemical analyses.
The sample is tested with MnO 4.
There is a pale pink color.
It is an intense purple color.
At the end point of the titration reaction, the solution becomes a light purple color with just one drop of excess MnO 4 1aq2 The end point of the titrations in alkaline solutions is obscured by the insoluble reduction product.
The dichromate ion is formed by the condensation of chromate ion.
Iron is the most important metal in modern civilization with an annual production of more than one billion metric tons.
It is found in Earth's crust at an abundance of 4.7%.
Iron is used to make steel.
It is one of the rarer elements.
Tom Pantages' annual production runs into the millions of pounds because it occurs in sufficiently concentrated deposits.
Magnets with other metals are Magnets with other metals are used.
Like iron, it is ferromagnetic.
A particularly strong and lightweight permanent mag motor is made from one alloy of Co5Sm.
Miniature electronic devices are made using magnets of this alloy.
Among the elements in Earth's crust, nickel is fourth in abundance.
The ores are mostly sulfides, oxides, silicates, and Arsenide.
Large deposits are found in Canada.
80% of the 136 million kilograms of nickel consumed in the United States goes to the production of alloys.
15% is used in electroplating and the rest is used as catalysts.
Even if not to the same degree as with other metals, there is variability of oxidation state in the iron triad.
All three metals have the +2 oxidation state.
The +2 oxidation state is the most stable for nickel and cobalt.
For iron, the +3 oxidation state is more stable than the +2 oxidation state, but for nickel, the situation is reversed.
In a solution with 3H+4, O21g2 spontaneously oxidizes Fe2 to Fe3 at 1 atm.
The reaction is still spontaneously occurring with lower O2 partial pressures and less acidic solutions.
Batteries use nickel(III) compounds.
A cell with a voltage of 1.5 V is produced by Cd1OH221s2 2 e-.
The reactions of the elements are varied.
The metals are more active than hydrogen.
The solu tions of Fe2 are usually yellow to brown, but this is probably due to the presence of species.
The acidic solution produced by Fe3+1aq2 is similar to the one produced by Al3+1aq2.
The reactions that can be used to identify and distinguish between Fe2 and Fe3 are summarized in Table 23.5.
Iron blue is used in paints, printing ink, laundry bluing, art colors, cosmetics, and blueprinting.
The formation of a blood-red complex ion with thiocyanate ion is a sensitive test for Fe3+1aq2.
There are several ways in which metal carbonyls are produced.
The Mond process for obtaining nickel metal from its oxides is based on the reaction above.
In the Mond Ni(CO)4 process, CO(g) is passed over metal oxides.
The other oxides are reduced to the metals in FIGURE 23-15 Ni1CO241g2.
It is necessary to use higher temperatures and CO(g) pressures with iron.
Reducing a metal compound in the presence of CO(g) can be used to obtain carbonyl.
A reaction similar to carbonyl formation causes carbon monoxide poisoning.
CO and Fe atoms are in the same place in the blood.
The metal car is very poisonous.
Throughout the ages, Cu, Ag, and Au have been the preferred metals for coins because they are so durable.
Table 23.7 helps us understand why this is so.
The metals are difficult to oxidize because they are easy to reduce.
The coinage metals and the alkali metals are in the same group in the periodic table.
The most common oxidation states are shown in red.
There are differences between the group 1 and group 11 metals.
For the group 11 metals, the first ionization energies are larger than for the group 1 metals, and the Edeg is positive for the group 11 metals and negative for the group 1 metals.
They can exist in different oxidation states, have paramagnetism and color in some of their compounds, and form complex ions.
They have a high degree of some of the distinctive physical properties of metals.
The coinage metals are used in jewelry making.
Gold can be hammered into thin translucent sheets known as gold leaf.
The electronics industry values coinage metals for their ability to conduct electricity.
Although silver has the highest electrical conductivity of any pure element, copper and gold are more often used as electrical conductors because of their low cost.
The monetary reserve of nations is the most important use of gold.
The coinage metals are resistant to air oxidation, although silver will tarnish through reactions with sulfur compounds in air to produce black Ag2S.
Green basic copper carbonate can be produced in moist air.
The green color is associated with copper roofing and statues.
The gold leaf and copper wire form a tough adherent coating that protects the underlying metal.
Both Cu and Ag react with concentrated H2SO41aq2 when they are exposed to Cu2+.
The HNO31aq2 oxidizes the metal and promotes the formation of a stable complex ion.
Cu is essential to life, but larger quantities are toxic tobacteria and other organisms.
The Transition Elements are the basic elements of pesticides.
CuSO # 4 5 H2O is the most important copper compound.
CuSO4 is used in a variety of industrial processes, including batteries, electroplating, and the preparation of other copper salts.
Silver(I) nitrate is the principal silver compound of commerce and is also an important laboratory reagent for the precipitation of anions, most of which form insoluble silver salts.
The precipitation reactions can be used for the quantitative determination of anions.
The majority of Ag compounds are derived from AgNO3.
In cloud seeding, Ag compounds are used as catalysts and in the manu facture of batteries.
Tom Pantages is diminishing now because of the advent of digital cameras, but silver halides are still used in photography.
Gold compounds are used in a variety of ways.
Some of the properties of the group 12 elements are summarized in Table 23.8.
The low melting and boiling points of the group 12 metals can be attributed to the fact that metallic bonding is weak.
Mercury is the only metal that can be liquid at room temperature and below.
Mercury doesn't have a tendency to combine with oxygen.
The oxide, HgO, is not stable.
Most of the mercury compounds are not hydrated.
There are many mercury compounds.
Mercurys are slightly ionized in the solution.
H21g2 will not be displaced by Mercury.
The first ionized energy of Hg is greater than that of Zn or Cd.
About one-third of the zinc produced is used in coating iron.
In the manufacture of alloys, Mar of Zn is consumed.
Harrison is a good conductor and brass is a good conductor.
The manufacture of dry-cell batter century uses zinc.
In special applications, zinc is used as a shiny and protec tive coating on iron.
It is used to impart strength to copper in a number of ways.
Control rods and shielding for nuclear reactor are other applications.
Mercury has high density and metallic and liquid properties.
It is also used in the chlor-alkali process.
fluorescent tubes and street lamps use mercury vapor.
The amalgam of mercury and silver does not form a dental filling.
Mercury is 70% Ag, 26% Sn, 3% Cu, and 1% Zn.
The artist's pigments zinc white, cadmium yellow, and vermilion are also the Transition Elements ZnO, CdS, and HgS.
The compounds have an electronic structure consisting of a valence band and a conduction band, which can be excited into the conduction band.
The colors of these materials are dependent on the width of the band gaps.
Mercury can affect the nervous system and cause brain damage.
"hatter's disease" was a common form of chronic mercury poisoning in the 19th century.
Mercury compounds were used to make hats.
Many hat makers of the time worked in hot, cramped spaces and used compounds without special precautions.
The hatters were exposed to toxic mercury compounds while they worked.
The mechanism of mercury poisoning is based on the fact that Hg has a high affinity for sulfur.
The organic mercury compounds are more toxic than the elements themselves.
The compounds concentrate in the food chains of fish and other aquatic life.
The discovery of the environmental hazard of mercury was made in Japan in the 1950s.
The victims' diet included a lot of local seafood with high levels of mercury.
The area of Japan where a mercury source was traced to a chemical plant was found to be contaminated.
Mercury is the most poisonous substance in the free state.
The levels of mercury in the air are considered unsafe.
Although we think of mercury as having a low vapor pressure, the concentration of Hg in its saturated vapor far exceeds this limit, and mercury vapor levels sometimes exceed safe limits where mercury is used.
Although zinc is an essential element in trace amounts, it is not a poison.
In Japan, effluents from a zinc mine became mixed with irrigation water used in rice fields, and people who ate the rice were poisoned.
Cadmium poisoning can cause damage to the body.
The mechanism of poisoning may involve substitution of the poison Cd with the essential element Zn.
There has been an increase in the number of people who are concerned about the safety of zinc and zinc compounds, materials that have many commercial applications.
The rare earth elements are not as rare as the alkaline earth metals.
Ce, Nd, and La are more abundant than lead and Tm.
Mineral deposits containing lanthanides are found in a number of locations.
Large deposits near the California-Nevada border are being developed to provide oxides of the lanthanides for use as phosphors.
The 4f electrons play a small role in chemical phosphors that contain bonding, and so the differences in electron configuration among the lanthanides are found to be similar.
M1s2 doesn't show much variation.
Depending on their - 2.38 V (La) and - 1.99 V (Eu) all fall green.
The composition is the main cause of the differ ences in properties.
The contraction can be seen in the ion M3+.
The general symbol for lanthanide is Ln, which means that it liberates H21g2 from hot water and from dilute acids by undergoing oxidation.
The lanthanides combine with other metals like O21g2, sul fur, the halogens, N21g2, H21g2, and carbon in the same way as expected.
The pure metals can be prepared with a molten salt.
The oxidation state for lanthanides is +3.
Half of the lanthanides can be obtained in the oxidation state.
There are reasons for the range of oxidation states and the predominance of the +3 oxidation state.
The lanthanide ion is colored in the solution.
The lanthanide elements are difficult to separate from one another.
The principle is that species that are strongly different can often be separated in a single step.
Only species that are very similar can be fractionated.
The ratio of one species to another is changed slightly.
The same basic step is repeated hundreds or even thousands of times to achieve a complete separation.
The methods of fractional crystallization, fractional precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion exchange were brought to their highest level of performance.
Magnetically levitated trains require high magnetic fields to work.
Electricity is conducted with no loss of energy because superconductors offer no resistance to an electric current.
All metals become superconducting if they are cooled to absolute zero.
Liquid helium is needed to maintain a superconductor at extremely low temperatures.
The field of the small magnet is repelled by another magnetic field that is associated with this current.
The magnet is suspended above the superconductor.
The materials made of lanthanum, strontium, copper, and oxygen became superconductivity at 30 K.
Other types of ceramic superconductors were discovered.
One of the new types was easy to make.
The YBCO ceramic is superconducting at a temperature of 92 K. It is above the boiling point of nitrogen.
Liquid nitrogen can be used as a coolant.
There are many variations of the YBCO formula.
There are almost any elements that can be substituted for yttrium.
The group's yttrium compound is superconducting at the highest temperature, despite all the variations.
This record was also short-lived.
Many of the ceramic superconductors have copper and oxygen atoms bonding together in sheets.
Cu-O planes are separated in YBCO superconductors.
The Cu--O planes can be found in "sandwiches" consisting of two sheets separated by a layer of group 2 ion.
The sandwiches are separated by layers of oxide.
The Cu--O planes are stacked in groups of three.
The first copper-free ceramic superconductors were discovered recently.
The new class of ceramics is based on iron, which is more abundant than copper.
The discovery has generated a lot of excitement because it has opened up new possibilities for developing high-temperature superconductors.
The superconductivity of ceramics is explained by the current theory of superconductivity, which was developed in the 1950s.
It seems that the electrons in all known superconductors move through the material in pairs.
In low-temperature superconductors, the mechanism by which electron pairs form is different from that in high-temperature superconductors.
It's difficult to find a suitable theory for higher-temperature superconductors.
New discoveries might be easier to make if the mechanism for high-temperature superconductors is better understood.
Maybe a room-temperature material will be possible.
Engineers are already building devices that use the new materials despite the less than complete understanding of high-temperature super conductors.
New devices for precise magnetic field measurement using ceramic superconductors are being produced, as well as wires that are superconducting at liquid nitrogen temperatures.
Ceramic superconductors can be used in low-cost, energy efficient electric power transmission.
The dimensions of the particles are in the range of 1 to 100 nm.
A quantum dot is a cluster of atoms with a diameter of tens of nanometers.
For a discussion of the interesting and unusual properties of quantum dots, go to the Focus On feature for Chapter 23, Nanotechnology and Quantum Dots.
More than half of the elements that are a good precipitating agent for a number of metal are the transition elements.
Most of them have more ion.
The transition metals are more reactive than hydrogen.
Transition metals tend to be basic if they are in one of the lower oxidation states.
Many transition metals and their com oxidation states are acidic.
The metals form compounds do the group member in the first transition series a disservice.
The metals Cu, Silver, and Gold are widely used in coins and jewelry.
Reduction of the oxide to the metal is one of the uses they find.
Various methods can be used to refine metals.
Zn is used in an alloy with continuous melting and refreezing of the metal to produce brass, which is a good electrical conductor and is resistant tocorrosion.
Most metals are discarded.
Some of the transition elements are used in the oxidation-reduction reactions.
The transition metal compounds of Sc are made from Ti, V, Cr, and Mn.
There are two types of oxidizing agents.
The dichromates and permanganates are ceramic.
Dichromate ion is in equilibrium with chromate ion and can be used in electric power transmission.
It is not possible to prepare a solution with a high concentration of Cu+ ion because CuCN can exist in contact with water.
Explain why a high 3Cu+4 cannot be maintained in a solution.
A plausible equation is needed to describe the disproportionation reaction.