China: A Prolonged Revolutionary Struggle
-Communism comes to China in 1949, 30 yr after Russian revolution
-China Communist Party (CCP) not founded until 1921, started off small as it only had 60 members at first
-Conflict with Chiang Kai-shek’s Guomindang:
CCP faces the Chinese Nationalist Party, the Guomindang, led by the army officer Chiang Kai-shek.
-CCP seeks peasants for support. They benefit from the tensions between peasants and landlords, engaged in public works projects, guerilla warfare, and creation of a communist military force.
- Mao Zedong: son of a Chinese peasant family emerges as the leader of the struggling party(China Communist Party). Develops theory for guerilla fighting and saw the peasants as a revolutionary force.
-Recruiting women: the communists establish Marriage law; outlaws arranged marriages, easier divorce, voting and property rights for women
- Japanese invasion, 1937–1945: When Japan invaded in 1937, the CCP grew in size, from 40,000 (1937) to 1.2 mil (1945), many soldiers in the Red Army and militias.
The CCP’s strength lay in its knowledge of guerilla warfare and its ability to operate behind Japanese lines.
-the Guomindang retreated deeper into
China, forged closer ties with the landowning classes, and seemed more interested in fighting the CCP than the Japanese.
-In controlled areas, CCP reduces many payments for peasants, encouraged certain behaviors
-Address China’s major issues: foreign imperialism and peasant exploitation
-CCP triumphant in 1949: four years after WWII ends
-Communist parties set construction of socialist societies Soviet Union in 1920-30s and China in the 1950s-60s
-Building socialism: modernism ad industrialization of the societies. An alteration on inequality and promoting cultural values
-Members of communist parties were to be disciplined, loyal, and selfless (to be an example of socialism)
-1917: Russian Bolsheviks face a capitalist world alone,
-China favors efforts to build socialism, had much more work to do in order to build a modern society (compared to the Russians)
-The early Soviet state had reforms that gave women full citizenship, equal rights, and better access to divorce and abortion.
- Zhenotdel, 1919–1930: This was the Soviet Women’s Department organized and educated
- women are suggested to take new public and professional roles.
-Stalin closed the organization in 1930
-The CCP: the 1950 Marriages Law as part of direct attacks on Confucian traditions.
-Get women to play a much more active role in working outside the home. “Women can do anything” the slogan urged women to pursue all professions. (1960)
-Soviet and Chinese women often had double work: in and outside of the home.
Socialism in the Countryside
-1917 Peasants seize land in Russia from landowners
-1949–1952: breaking up of landlord holdings after their victory against the Guomindang.
-Collectivization and famines: Stalin forced the peasantry into collective farms (1928-1933)
-He declared war on the wealthier peasants, kulaks, killed/deported. A famine that killed 5 million.
-the communist see industry as the way to a modern future. Ideas of Karl Marx.
-Both adopt strategies for industrial develop.
Centered on state ownership of property; growth of heavy industry.
-Cities lived off of the food from the countryside, and a new class rose to prominence.
Stalin accepts social changes, Mao did not as he saw them as a betrayal of the Chinese communist path
- 1958–60: Mao launches “Great Leap Forward” to industrialize China using his take on it.
- The Cultural Rev. was a political struggle
He wanted to bring social services such as health care to countryside. program failed.
-Large industrialization projects create large-scale pollution.