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31 -- Part 4: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
The reversal in the price and availability of energy was even more damaging.
It was decided to reverse a decline in the crude oil price by countries that export oil.
Set policies and prices on its trade after the Arab-Israeli war.
The world's worst economic decline since the 1930s was caused by the rise in energy prices.
When Iranian oil production collapsed during the Islamic revolution in 1979 crude oil prices doubled again.
Unemployment rates in western Europe had risen to their highest levels since the Great Depression.
The global recovery was slow.
Western Europe's welfare system prevented mass suffering, but increased government spending was not matched by higher taxes, causing a rapid growth of budget deficits, na tional debts, and inflation.
The government's ever increasing role had set off a powerful reaction by the late 1970s.
Margaret Thatcher slowed government spending and privatized industry in Britain.
austerity measures were introduced by other Western governments to slow the growth of public spending.
The impact of austerity and the threat of unemployment shaped the outlook of a whole generation.
Students in the 1980s were practical and conservative.
Changes in the Soviet Union influenced political and social developments in eastern Europe after the war.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the trend of radical reform in the Soviet Union opened the way for popular revolution in the eastern European satellites.
Russian nationalism was fostered by the "Great Patriotic War of the Fatherland".
Stalin was moving his country back towards dictatorship before the war ended.
The war on capitalism began as early as 1944 when the Communist Party received a new slogan.
In 1945 and 1946, Stalin revived the terrible forced-labor camps of the 1930s, as well as expelling thousands of returning soldiers and ordinary civilians.
There was a purge of Western influences, thodox Christianity came under attack, and Soviet Jews were accused of being pro Western.
The five-year plans were reintroduced by Stalin.
Consumer goods, housing, and collectivized agriculture were neglected once again, as the heavy and military industry was given top priority.
It was hard to live everyday.
The Stalinist system was exported to eastern Europe.
The region's one-party states had a lack of civil liberties and attacks on religion.
There was no Russian army in Yugoslavia, which allowed the Communist Party chief to resist Soviet domination.
Stalin died in 1953.
Even as his heirs struggled for power, they realized that reforms were necessary because of the widespread fear and hatred of Stalin's political terrorism.
They closed many forced-labor camps.
It was necessary for economic reasons.
There were shortages of consumer goods and agriculture was in bad shape.
Stalin's foreign policy led to the isolation of the Soviet Union.
The leadership of the Communist Party disagreed on how much change to allow.
Reformers, led by Nikita Khrushchev, argued for major innovations and won.
The Communist Party had a monopoly on political power, but the Khrushchev tion shook it up and brought in new members.
During Nikita Khrushchev's time as the head of the industry and the military, resources were shifted to consumer goods and agriculture.
The Soviet Union's standard of living continued to improve throughout the 1960s.
The ferment created by de-Stalinization was felt by writers and intellectuals.
The novel depicts life in a Stalinist concentration camp in grim detail and is a damning indictment of the Stalinist past.
He argued that it was possible to coexist with capital ism.
De-Stalinization stimulated rebellion in the eastern European satellites.
Rioting brought in a new Communist government in Poland.
The people of Hungary installed a liberal Communist reformer as their new leader in October of 1956.
After the new government prom ised free elections, the Russians ordered an invasion and destroyed the revolution.
The Berlin Wal began construction in 1961.
The Berlin Wal was needed to prevent East Germans from defecting to the West.
The party's opposition to Khrushchev's policies gained steam.
Stalinization was seen as a threat to party authority.
Khrushchev's policy toward the West was unsuccessful.
Khrushchev ordered missiles with nuclear warheads to be installed in Cuba.
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