Asians were branded as "aliens ineligible for citizenship" and were not allowed to own or rent property in many states.
Female citizens who wanted to marry Asian "aliens" lost their citizenship.
The white American reaction to Japanese Americans during World War II was the worst example of anti-Asian sentiment in the country's history.
The government was worried about security threats posed by those with Japanese sympathies, but two-thirds of the 120,000 inmates were American citizens.
Both German Americans and Italian Americans were at war with the United States, but they were not stripped of their rights.
Young Japanese men were asked to sign oaths of loyalty to the American government in order to be drafted into military service.
The people who refused in outrage were imprisoned.
Academic success and economic prosperity are unusual features of the Asian American experience.
Asian and Pacific Islanders have a higher median household income than whites, despite the fact that all Asian groups have not been equally successful.
Forced out of wage labor in the West by resentful white workers, Asian immigrants developed entrepreneurial skills and came to own their own businesses and restaurants.
The success of the American education system and culture of equality of opportunity can be attributed to a cultural emphasis on hard work and high achievement.
Many Asian immigrants were highly skilled and professional workers in their own countries and passed on the values of their achievements to their children.
High school and college graduation rates are higher for Asian Americans than for other ethnic groups, and in some places are higher than for whites.
It's not unusual for Asian Americans to become targets of racist attacks because of their high levels of academic success.
Asian Americans stand in an odd relationship to affirmative action, a set of policies that usually helps minorities blocked from traditional paths to economic prosperity.
Affirmative action policies are harmful to Asian Americans who want to go to universities.
If race were not taken into account, more of the students would be admitted because they are so qualified.
Policies that pit minority groups against each other in this way do not promote solidarity and community among them and make racist attitudes even harder to overcome.
Participation among Asian Americans should be high according to our understanding of what makes people vote.
Asian American voter registration and turnout rates are among the lowest in the nation.
In states with a large number of Asian Americans, their political representation and influence do not reflect their numbers, as they tend to register as independents.
Political observers account for the lack of participation.
Immigration laws restricted the citizenship rights of Asian Americans after World War II.
Many Asian immigrants left behind political systems that did not have democratic political participation.
The trend of nonparticipation is changing according to some evidence.
Asian Americans tend to vote at higher rates than other groups, according to research.
There were eleven Asian Pacific American members of the House of Representatives and two Asian Pacific American senators in the 116th Congress.
Early turnout was up in 2016 and the vote went to Hillary Clinton, despite Asian American turnout lagging behind.
The Supreme Court's interpretation of the commerce clause has given Congress power over Native Americans.
Because neither Congress nor the courts have been receptive to the claims of Native Americans, they have sought to force the American government to fulfill its promises to them and to gain political rights and economic well-being by working outside the system and using the resources generated from running casinos.
Hispanics have been denied their rights partly because of discrimination but also because of organized movements such as the Englishonly movement and anti-immigration efforts.
Hispanics have not been very successful in organizing to fight for their rights politically because of their diversity.
Hispanic leaders use tactics such as boycotts and voter education.
Asian Americans who were prevented by law from becoming citizens and under suspicion during World War II have had to bear the brunt of Americans' discrimination.
Asian Americans have failed to organize politically.
Asian Americans have been able to thrive economically in their own communities despite political discrimination.
Discuss the different paths to equality taken by different racial and ethnic groups.
The women's fight for equal rights in the American political system has been the most peculiar because they were not denied civil and economic rights in the same way that other groups have been.
Many women shared a belief that men should have power in the political world, and they lived with their husbands or fathers.
Women's realm, after all, was the home, and the prevailing narrative was that white women were too good, too pure, too chaste, to deal with the sordid world outside.
The struggle for women's rights has failed to win the support of all women but has also been opposed by many men whose power, standing, and worldview it has threatened.
The legal and economic position of women in the early 19th century was not much different than it is today.
According to English common law, when a woman married, she merged her legal identity with her husband's, which is to say that she no longer had one.
She couldn't bring a lawsuit, own or inherit property, earn wages for any service, gain custody of her children in case of divorce, or initiate divorce from an abusive husband once married.
She lost her citizenship if her husband was not a U.S. citizen.
Neither married nor unmarried women could vote.
In exchange for the legal identity his wife gave up, a husband was expected to provide security for her, and if he died without a will, she was entitled to one-third of his estate.
She had no recourse to protect herself and her children if he left her out of his will.