The Obama campaign won the Hispanic and Asian American vote in the 2008 and 2012 elections by large margins, and the Democrats have been more successful recently.
Depending on how the issue of immigration plays out, temporary Democratic support could be sealed as one-party loyalty.
The answer is easy to find for the poor.
The representation of the poor's interests appears to have an effect on how well they are represented.
The concerns of the poor do not have the same weight as those of the better off according to research.
People with higher income and better education are more likely to vote and contribute to campaigns because they have the resources and skills to communicate their policy preferences to their representatives.
The result is that elected officials pay less attention to the poor in their work.
The lack of working people in Congress probably leads to some of their concerns being left off the congressional agenda, because economic inequality carries over to the policymaking process of who gets what.
Only 2 percent of those elected to Congress fit the definition of a "working class" because of their occupational status.
Members vote on economic policies on how they feel about working-class interests.
On economic matters, working-class members are more liberal than Congress as a whole, and if workers were represented proportionately in Congress, it is likely that each Congress would pass at least some significant additional legislation that favors their economic interests.
Having one of our own as an active participant in the policy process has positive symbolic meaning for women, Hispanics, and African Americans.
The results are mixed as to whether the presence of these groups in the legislative process produces better policies for them.
In terms of how they vote, members of these demographic groups tend to put issues of concern to the groups on the political agenda, but in terms of how they actually vote, the effect is not great.
Women legislators tend to vote for women's issues, but they are also Democrats and Republicans, and partisan interest can override gender commitment.
Creating majority-minority districts through racial gerrymander has the effect of "bleaching" adjacent districts, particularly in the southern states.
African American and Hispanic legislators add to the agenda new bills regarding their demographic groups and speak about their issues in floor debate as a result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the result of the There is no difference in voting on bills between the legislators who are Hispanic and those who are white.
It seems that the primary policy effect of descriptive representation is that it brings what might be otherwise neglected perspectives to the legislatures, raising minority-interest issues and anticipating the needs and concerns of fellow minorities when new issues arise.
Congressional elections are the meeting ground for citizens and their representatives, where each brings his or her own goals and stakes in the process.
Citizens want a congressperson who will take care of local affairs, mind the nation's business, and represent them on political and social issues.
The rules of local representation and electoral politics mean that citizens are more likely to get someone who takes care of local interests and affairs, and who sticks to a partisan line, at the expense of national interests and general representation.
Congress wants to be elected and reelected.
Many of the rules that control electoral politics favor those already in office.
Many members want to do what is best for the nation regardless of their district or state, but they have to return to their local concerns and supporters in order to be reelected.
How congressional districts are defined and who runs for Congress are influenced by politics.
The official business of Congress is making laws despite the imperatives of reelection and the demands of constituency service.
The rules of the institution that determine where the power is and who can exercise it is influenced a lot by the organization of Congress.
The section describes how Congress is organized and how it is influenced by members' goals.
Congress functions because of political parties.
Congress is organized according to party lines.
The Speaker of the House, the majority leader of the Senate, and the chairs of all the committees and subcommittees are all Democrats.
Because all positions are determined by the parties, members have to advance within their party to achieve positions of power in the House or the Senate.
The parties stand for very different things so party control of Congress is important.
Democrats embrace more liberal policies than Republicans do.
These candidates vote differently from one another.
Democratic members of the House are increasingly likely to vote with the majority of their party and are opposed by Republican representatives similarly voting as a bloc.
Although Americans like to downplay the importance of parties in their own lives, political parties are fundamental to the operation of Congress and what the national government does.
John Tester is a farmer and former music teacher who served on various local board and committees before moving on to national politics.
He wants to return to Montana and get his hands dirty on the farm his family has worked on for a century.
Early in his career, Tester got caught up in public service.
In a rural community, citizens are expected to serve on committees and boards.
After a stint on the school board, Tester ran for and won a seat in the Montana Senate, following in the footsteps of his high school ambitions.
"I enjoy public service," says Tester.
After eight years in the state Senate, he made the leap to national politics.
He was a long-shot candidate for the U.S. Senate, and the race was very close, but he thought he had done his best and it was up to the voters.
He was the new senator from Montana.
He narrowly won reelection in 2012 and again in 2018, despite attempts to oust him.