Philadelphians turned out for a "grand federal pro " The Federal Pillars" from the cession" in honor of the new national constitution.
The library symbolically beat swords into farm tools.
The Potters carried a sign that said "The potter has power over his clay" and linked God's power with an artisan's work and a citizen's control over the country.
Clergymen marched with Jewish rabbis.
Americans would celebrate more of these pa triotic holidays over the next few years.
Thousands of people gathered in New York to see George Washington take the oath of office.
The new nation wasn't as cohesive as it could have been.
The country was often not unified despite the officials of the new federal government and the people who supported them.
The Constitution was a controversial document that was adopted to strengthen the government.
The new nation looked to the future with uncertainty.
The United States faced a threat of collapse less than two years before the national celebrations of 1789.
After the Revolution ended, thousands of farmers in western Massachusetts were struggling with debt.
Weak local and national economies made their problems worse.
Many political leaders saw the debt and the struggling economy as a consequence of the Articles of Confederation, which gave the federal government no way to raise revenue and made Daniel Shays a divisive figure.
A new NAtIoN is needed to unify the nation.
The farmers wanted the Massachusetts government to protect them from their debts, but the state supported them.
Many farmers, including Revolutionary War veterans, took up arms when their property was threatened to be foreclosed on.
The "Shaysites" formed blockades around courthouses to keep judges from issuing foreclosure orders and were led by a veteran named Daniel Shays.
The protesters saw their cause and their methods as an extension of the "spirit of 1776", they were protecting their rights and demanding compensation for the people's grievances.
The Shaysites were seen as rebels who wanted to rule the government through violence.
He ordered thousands of militiamen to clear them.
The state force was led by a former Revolutionary general, Benjamin Lincoln, who wanted Massachusetts to prevent a state of anarchy, confusion and slavery.
Lincoln's militia arrested more than one thousand Shaysites and reopened the courts in January 1787.
Shays and most of his followers received pardons after they were indicted for treason and sentenced to death.
The Shays' Rebellion generated intense national debate.
Thomas Jefferson thought "a little rebellion now and then" helped keep the country free, but others thought the nation was sliding toward anarchy.
Shays' Rebellion was an example of why the country needed a strong central government.
Madison warned that the abuses of liberty as well as the abuses of power could endanger liberty.
In the summer of 1787, delegates from twelve of the thirteen states met at the Pennsylvania state house.
Rhode Island did not send a representative.
The delegates were told to revise the Articles of Confederation.
The federal government's inability to collect taxes was the biggest problem the convention had to solve.
The burden of paying back debt from the Revolutionary War fell on the states.
The states were beholden to the people who bought their war bonds.
James Madison had no intention of simply revising the Ar ticles of Confederation.
He wanted to create a new constitution.
He completed two research projects in the previous year, one on the history of government in the United States and the other on the history of republics around the world.
The proposal he brought with him to Philadelphia was based on this research.
The Virginia Plan was named after Madison's home state.
Classical learning said that a repub James Madison lican form of government required a small and homogenous state, like the Roman republic or a small country likeDenmark.
The citizens configuration of who were too far apart or different could not govern themselves.
The United States needed a government according to conventional wisdom.
Madison's weak central government, which should represent the states ginia Plan, was on some of the same issues.
Power should remain at guiding document in the formation of the state or local level.
Madison's research led him in a different direction.
He thought it was possible to create an extended republic.
Every state would be represented in one of the two houses of the congress.
Some delegates to the convention agreed with Madison that the Articles of Confederation had failed.
They didn't agree on what kind of government should replace them.
They disagreed about the best method of representation.
Representation was an important issue that influenced a number of decisions, including how the national executive branch should work, what specific powers the federal government should have, and even what to do about the divisive issue of slavery.
Each state had a single vote in the Continental Congress.
New Jersey and Delaware wanted to keep things the same.
Roger Sherman argued that members of Congress should be appointed by the state legislature.
Sherman said that ordinary voters were liable to be misled and that they should have little to do about most national decisions.
Since the Virginia Plan would greatly increase the powers of the national government, representation should be drawn directly from the public.
He warned that no government could survive without the people's confidence.
Roger Sherman suggested a compromise.
Each state would have one vote in the Senate, which became the upper house of Congress, in which members were assigned based on population.
Each state would have two senators who could vote on their own under the proposal adopted after months of debate.
The compromise established both types of representation and also counted a slave as three fifths of a person for tax purposes.
The delegates decided on the form of the national executive branch.
On June 1, James Wilson moved that the national executive power reside in one person.
The proposal came four years after the American Revolution and conjured up images of an elected monarchy.
The president would be elected by a special electoral college after they debated these questions for months.
It was a very controversial scheme.
The Constitutional Convention was assembled.
The convention voted to send the proposed Constitution to Congress with a cover letter from George the Convention.
Voters in different states should oppose it.
George Mason, the author of Virginia's state Dec 3.0 Unported, had a pro Commons Attribution-Share Alike proposal voted down by the Constitutional Convention.