ChAPTER 29 -- Part 1: Industrialization and Imperialism: The
The gaps in the British force left by the flight of the African irregulars were quickly exploited by the Zulu fighters.
Despite their superior weaponry, the Europeans were defeated by well-organized and determined African or Asian resistance forces.
Most of the soldiers in the camp were killed or fled to a river to escape the impisments positioned to block their retreat.
In the early 1800s, warriors and weapons provided the military power for an ambitious young leader named Shaka to forge a powerful kingdom centered on Natal in the southeastern portion of what would later become the union of South Africa.
The most formidable force in resisting the advance of both the Dutch and British armies in southern Africa was the preindustrial military organization of the Zulus.
The British defeat seemed implausible because of the huge disparity between the military might of the European colonial powers and the African and Asian peoples they had come to dominate.
European states were able to supply advanced weaponry and other war materiel to large naval and land forces across the globe thanks to technological innovations.
The British defeat at Isandhlwana was a short-lived exception to what had become a pervasive pattern of European political and military supremacy worldwide.
Estimates range from two to three times those for British units and "native" levees combined.
A force of 3000 Zulu warriors were decimated in the siege of a small outpost at nearby rorke's drift after the destruction of most of the main British column.
A group of farm buildings were successfully defended by over a hundred British soldiers.
Revenge for the defeat inflicted by the Zulus at Isandhlwana was swift and massive, as was the case in equally stunning massacres of the expeditionary forces of industrial powers in other colonial settings.
More troops were drawn from throughout the British empire and, within months, a larger British force was moving towards the capital of the Zulu tribe.
The coalition of Indian tribes that had joined to destroy Custer's units of the Seventh Cavalry dispersed soon after the first British invasion.
The ruler of the Zulu tribe, Cetshwayo, was shipped into exile at Cape Town by late August.
The last of the wars between the Euro peans and the Zulus exemplified many of the fundamental shifts in the balance of world power in the turn of the century.
The rivalry between the European powers set the stage for World War I.
Like their French, Dutch, Belgian, German, Russian, Japanese, and American competitors, the British went deep into Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
In contrast to the earlier centuries of overseas expansion, the European powers were driven by rivalries with each other, and in some instances with the Japanese and Americans, rather than fears of Muslim kingdoms in the Middle East and North Africa.
The 1879 Anglo-Zulu war was precipitated by British demands, including the right to station a resident in the Zulu kingdom, that would have reduced Cetshwayo to the status of a vassal.
Although the British and other colonizers would continue to govern through indigenous officials in many areas, their subordinates were increasingly recruited from new elites, both professional and commercial, who emerged from schools where the languages and customs of the imperial powers were taught to growing numbers of colonized peoples.
The process was not in keeping with the interests of the climates and cultures of those in charge of European enterprises overseas.
The directors who ran the lands went out to rule.
The late 1700s marked a point of transition in both the contraction of colonial domination in the Americas and the expansion of Africa, Asia, and the Pacific.
There was a lot of latitude for commanders in the field.
Java is the most populous of the hundreds of islands that make up Indonesia.
It was a struggle just to survive as the Dutch consolidated their power on Java, the center of the Asian coast of the island in 1619.
The Dutch empire grew rapidly from the late 17th century.
The Indonesian archipelago is to the east.
In the 1670s, the Dutch supported the side that won the war over the throne of Mataram.
The Dutch demanded that the territories around Batavia be turned over to India Company in honor of them.
The weakness of kingdom between the princes of Mataram was the subject of this episode.
Dutch armies were mostly made up of troops recruited after 1670s, when Dutch took control of all of Java.
The Dutch were an ally of whichever prince won them, because of their superior orga nization and discipline.
The price the rulers paid was very high.
More and more land was ceded to Europeans because of succession disputes and Dutch intervention.
The south central parts of Java were controlled by the sultans of Mataram by the mid-18th century.
The Dutch took control of the entire island after Sultan Mangkubumi's failed attempt to restore control over the Dutch.
The core of an Asian empire would last for 200 years.
The rise of British rule in India resembled the Dutch capture of Java.
The directors of the British East India Company were hostile to expansion.
The company's agents in India interfered in disputes between local princes.
The troops were recruited from people throughout the region.
The princes of British East India Company recruited the British to help them crush competitors from within and put down those who tried to seize their thrones.
In Java, the European of India.
There were important differences between the patterns of colonial conquest in India and Java, as well as between the global repercussions of each, because the struggle for India came later.
The two powers fought five wars in the 18th century.
The struggles were global.
The two old adversaries fought on land and sea in Europe, North America, and the Caribbean, where each had valuable plantation colonies.
British victories ended the struggles with the exception of the American War of Independence.
The British loss of the American colonies was more than offset by earlier victories in the Caribbean and India.
The British eventually took control of the entire South Asian region.
Although the first victories of the British over the French and Indian princes came in the Madras region in the south in the late 1740s, their rise as a major land power in Asia hinges on victories in Bengal to the northeast.
Control of the kingdom of Bengal was the prize.
The process of empire building in Asia and Africa was discussed by Indian soldiers.
The numbers on each side and the maneuvers on the field had by European officers and armed, uniformed, and drilled according to little to do with the outcome of a battle that in a sense was over European standards, troops such as those pictured here were recruited before it began.
One of the main accounts of the divisions in Siraj ud-daula's ranks in the months of European colonial regimes was that Clive's Indian spies gave him detailed information from the colonized peoples.
The main British spy was bribed by Siraj ud-daula, but the nawab's leading spy was on Clive's payroll.
The rivalry between France and India meant that Clive's troops were paid more in India than in France.
The British East India's fate was already sealed when the teenage ruler of Bengal rode into battle on June 23, 1757.
His major Indian allies defected to the British or remained stationary on his Siraj ud-daula, ruler of Bengal.
The rise of British advantage was marked by these defections, which wiped out the nawab's numerical victory.
The architect of British victory at the global empire had laid the foundations.
The British officials of the East India Company went to war with the princes of India multiple times in the decades after Plassey.
The Mughal empire broke down more fully in the last decades of the century.
Between the late 1700s and the 1850s, the British built an empire that encompassed most of South Asia.
The British were able to advance inland from their three trading towns on the Indian coast: Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta.
The old hatreds and grudges ran deeper than the new threat of the British.
Many ordinary Indians were allied with the British and eager to serve in the British armies, which had better weapons, brighter uniforms, and higher pay than the armies of the Indian rulers.
By the mid-19th century, British officers and enlisted men in India outnumbered Indian soldiers at the rulers' courts, making up over one-third of the British Indian.
India was the pivot of the great empire being built by Britain in the 19th century.
The British were fond of calculating the total square miles of empire because of the large number of white settlers in older colonies.
India had a larger share of colonized peoples.
The armies of the Indian peoples were quickly becoming the police of the British Indian empire.
In the 19th century, Indian soldiers were sent to punish the Chinese and Afghans and to begin the conquest of south and east Africa.
British sea power east of the Cape of Good Hope was dependent on Indian ports.
As the century progressed, India became the major outlet for British overseas investments and manufactured goods as well as a major source of key raw materials.
The Dutch and British Empire were content to leave the social systems of the peoples they ruled, even though they eventually emerged as the political masters of Java and India.
The small number of European traders and company officials who lived in the colonies for any length of time formed a new class atop the social hierarchy that already existed in Java and different parts of India.
The old ruling families were preserved beneath them.
The day-to-day administration was left in the hands of the very highest levels.
The local rulers were placed with an agent of the imperial power.
To survive in the hot tropical environments of south and southeast Asia, the Dutch and English had to adapt to the ancient and sophisticated host cultures of their Asian colonies.
The Dutch initially tried to create a little Holland in Java.
The houses they built were similar to the ones they left behind in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.
The canals were found to be a great breeding ground for insects and microbes that were capable of carrying diseases such as malaria, dysentery, and typhoid.
By the late 17th century, the prosperous merchants and officials of the city were moving away from the center of the city to villas in the suburbs.
Their large dwellings were located in gardens and separated by rice paddies and palm groves.
The tall houses of the inner city were replaced by low, scuplture dwellings with many open spaces.
The porches were large enough to block the heat and glare of the sun.
Most of the people who survived wore looser-fitting cotton clothing.
The long skirt-like sarongs of the Javanese aristocracy were donned by Dutch gentlemen and their wives.
British and Dutch officials learned that the Dutch would never lose and that the British would revive in the post- independence era.
The Dutch and English worked hard in the cool of the morning, took a long lunch break, and then returned to the office for the afternoon and evening.
Dutch and British traders and soldiers had liaisons with Asian women because they were mostly male until the mid-19th century.
In some cases, these were only visits to the brothel.
European men lived with Asian women and sometimes married them.
Mixed marriages on the part of prominent traders were common in Java before the end of the 18th century.
During the early decades of the European overseas empire, there were examples of racial discrimination against the subject peoples on the basis of their physical appearance.
By the last half of the 19th century, the social distance between colonizers and colonized was marked in a variety of ways.
The Dutch and British didn't want to change the social or cultural life of their Asian subjects until the 19th century.
Both the British and the Dutch made it clear that they had little interest in spreading Christianity among the Indians or the Javanese.
The British refused to allow Christian missionaries to preach in their territories until the second decade of the 19th century because they were afraid of offending Hindus and Muslims.
The East India Company and its colonies were reformulated by the British parliament due to rampant corruption on the part of company officials.
It was given to the British quickly.
They made a lot of money by cheating the company and exploiting the East India peasants and artisans.
The British parliament passed several acts that restructured the company and made it more accountable to the British government.
The French saw the process of turning colonial subjects into British in India as a way to increase the number of French citizens.
Germany and Great Britain were both involved in the debate over education in India.
Both of these rivals and the United had higher birth rates in this period.
The students in west Africa had fully absorbed the lessons.
The Dutch didn't fully integrate to French culture until their sons of the Javanese elite were born, so they were able to become full citi European-language schools for the zens of France.
By the early 20th century, policymakers realized that they needed administrative assistants from Vietnam and Tunisia, as well as postal clerks, because they couldn't get enough French voters.
Western parliament was agreed to by all.
The British and French approach to education was adopted by other European colonial powers.
One of the advantages of having Western-educated Portuguese was that they pushed for smaller numbers of African and Asian subordinates because they were always below elite classes.
European officials were paid less than Europeans were paid for doing the same work in the colonies because of their Western education.
Europeans had no problem explaining this to black French citizens.
It had effects on those who shaped it.
The higher pay for the Europeans was justified because the compensation policy did not intend to affect the sacrifice involved in colonial service.
The Europeans assumed that European employees would be more hard colonial dominance.
The population of colonized areas is efficient.
The British in India wanted the schools to spread their ideas and production techniques.
In all European colonial societies, Western education led to teach the Indians Western literature and manners and to instill similar occupational opportunities: in government service, with in them a Western sense of morality.
Macaulay said it was hoped that English-language schools would turn out brown journalists.
Within a generation after their introduction, English gentlemen, who would in turn teach their countrymen Western-language schools, created a new middle class in the ways of the West.
The idea of French nationalism as a social and economic niche in the middle of culture, rather than birth, made it important for Africans and other colonial students to master the French on one hand and the peasantry and urban on the other.
The ways and teachings of their fathers were often at odds with the European masters.
Finding that they would be fully admitted to landed gentry, who were often their fathers or grand neither world, they rejected the first and set about replacing fathers.
The peasantry, whose beliefs and way of life were so different from the modern world, were not welcome by members of the new middle class.
Europeans continued to provide Western-language resentful of their lower salaries and of European competition education for Africans and Asians because it was clear they were for scarce jobs.
His measures limited their participation in governing the empire because of his distrust of Indians.
Speech on Fox's East India Bill, which saw the spread of Methodism among the English working classes, spilled over into Britain's colonial domain.
Utilitarian philosophers such as Jeremy Bentham and James Mill supported the calls for reforms in India by evangelicals, who were in the forefront of the struggle to put an end to the slave trade.
If decent living conditions were to be attained by people at all class levels, there were common principles by which human societies ought to be run.
Mill and other Utilitarians believed that British society was more advanced than Indian society.
They pushed for the introduction of British institutions and ways of thinking in India, as well as the eradication of Indian superstitions and social abuses.
Western education is the key to revitalizing an ancient but decadent Indian civilization according to both Utilitarians and Evangelicals.
In the 1830s, British historian Thomas Babington Macaulay said that one shelf of an English gentleman's library was worth all the writings of Asia.
The introduction of English-language education for the children of the Indian elite was pushed for by the Evangelicals and Utilitarians.
Major reforms in Indian society were pushed for by these officials.
By the time of the Muslim invasions in the 11th and 12th centuries, this Speech on Parliamentary Reform practice had spread widely among upper-caste Hindu groups.
The wives of Rajputs were encouraged to kill themselves rather than risk their husbands being captured and molested by Muslim invaders.
The practice of sati was adopted by some brahman castes and lower-caste groups.
One confrontation between the British and educated Indian leader, early those affected by their efforts to prevent widow burnings illustrates the confidence of the reformers 19th century; cooperated with in the righteousness of their cause and the sense of moral and social superiority over the Indians that British to outlaw sati.
It's your custom to burn widows.
The funeral pyre needs to be prepared.
The range and magnitude of the reforms the British enacted in India in the early 19th century marked a landmark in global history.
The British rulers of one of the oldest centers of civilization consciously began to transmit the ideas, inventions, modes of organization, and technology associated with Western Europe's scientific and industrial revolutions to the peoples of the non-Western world.
The British tried to remake Indian society along Western lines with English education, social reforms, railways and telegraph lines.
India's crop lands were measured and registered, its forests were set aside for "scientific" management, and its people were drawn more and more into the European-dominated global market economy.
British officials believed that they could teach the Indian peasantry the virtues of thrift and hard work.
The children of India's middle class were lectured by the British on the importance of emulating their European masters in matters as diverse as being punctual, exercising their bodies, and mastering the literature and scientific learning of the West.
Europeans were left alone to dominate overseas trade and empire building.
By the last decades of the century, Britain's industrial supremacy was challenged by foreign conquests, including Germany and the United States, as well as France and Belgium.
colonies were seen as essential to states of the outbreak of World War I in order to become great powers.
Colonies, particularly those in Africa and India, were seen in 1914.
Europe's political leaders had both political and economic concerns.
There were recurring economic depressions in Europe and the United States in the late 19th century.
The lead ers of the industrialized nations did not have the experience to deal with the overproduction and unemployment that came with each of the economic crises.
They were worried about the social unrest and what appeared to be revolution that each phase of depression created.
White settlement colonies, such as Australia, could serve as safety valves to release the pressure built up in times of industrial slumps, according to some political theorists.
In the first half of the 19th century, political leaders in Europe were more involved in decisions to annex overseas territories than they are now.
This was due to improved communications.
Telegraphs and railways made it possible to send orders from the capitals of Europe to their representatives in the tropics.
Politicians were not the only ones involved in decisions to add to the empire.
Although stalwart explorers might make treaties with local African or Asian potentates who assigned their lands to France or Germany, these annexations had to be approved by the home government.
In most cases, parliamentary debates spilled over into press wars and popular demonstrations.
Empires have become the pride of the nations of Europe and North America.
The Europeans were far ahead of the other people in the capacity to wage war by the late 19th century.
Europeans could exploit mineral resources that most people didn't know existed, and Euro pean chemists mixed even more deadly explosives.
The mass production of light, mobile artillery pieces that rendered suicidal the massed cavalry or infantry charges that were the mainstay of Asian and African armies was made possible by advances in metallurgy.
There were improvements in hand arms.
The muzzle-loading muskets of the first phase of empire building were clumsy and unreliable.
After decades of experimentation, the machine gun became an effective weapon.
The ability to supply armies in the field for extended periods of time was given to the Europeans by railroads.
After the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, steam power replaced the sail, iron hull replaced wooden ones, and massive guns were introduced into the fleets of the great powers.
The wars of colonial conquest were dominated by the dazzling array of new weaponry that the Europeans set out on their expeditions to the Indian frontiers or the African bush.
The sleek majesty of the warships that were central to British success in building a global empire is captured in this striking painting.
The late-19th century saw intense rivalries between the European powers and Africa, as reflected in the patchwork that partition made of the continent.
The people of these areas were forced to fight European machine guns with spears, arrows, and leather shields because they were cut off from most preindustrial advances in technology.
On Monday, we heard a shuddering like Leviathan, the voice of many cannon, and we heard the roar like waves on the rocks.
We heard a crashing like elephants or monsters and our hearts melted at the number of shells.
The guns were so loud that we could hear the battle of Pangani.
Not even peoples with advanced preindustrial technology and sophisticated military organization, such as the Chinese and the Vietnamese, could stand against the Europeans.
One of the officials who led the fight against the French invaders warned that nobody could resist them.
The colonial possessions in the islands of the Pacific were smaller and less valuable than those of the united States.
Most of the forces that conquered and controlled European empires overseas were from African and Asian peoples.
By the middle of the 19th century, European overlords began to see military prowess as a racial attribute.
The European colonizers preferred to recruit soldiers from ethnic and reli gious groups.
African and Asian peoples were often against the rule of colonial rule.
The European advance was held back by West African leaders.
Local officials organized guerrilla resistance in defense of the indigenous regime when rulers such as the Vietnamese emperors refused to fight.
Conventional resistance ended in defeat.
In Vietnam, the British and Zulu armies ran the guerrillas to the ground.
One of the few victories of the African kingdom fell under the control of the British.
Western Europeans have advantages in conventional battles.
The Maji Maji uprisings in German East Africa in 1907 and the Boxer Rebellion in China in 1898 were all fought by religious leaders.
The Europeans' weapons were demoralizing and the only way to counteract them was with magic and divine help.
The European colonial order was made up of two different colonies by the end of the 19th century.
The lands and populations of non-Western peoples in these colonies are being transformed by small numbers of Europeans.
They controlled a lot of people in the tropics.
In India, Java, and African enclaves, the demand for Western learning dominance was worked out by the elite.
European rule in middle classes of colonized the late 19th and early 20th century bought most of these colonies.
There were different patterns of European occupation and indigenous response within this.
The white settlers colonies accounted for a good portion of the land area, but only a small portion of the population of Britain.
Colonies with substantial indigenous popula settlers made up most of the population in colonies in which relatively small numbers of native inhab tions that are ruled by small Euro itants had been decimated by diseases and wars of conquest.
The United States was formed in the late 18th century because of the help of colonized areas in North America.
There are some areas where large numbers of Europeans have migrated.
In the 19th century, North America and Australia were the only countries where Europeans and Americans had begun to occupy.
It was possible for tens or hundreds of thousands of Europeans to settle permanently in the areas that were hospitable to European invaders.
In these settlement colonies, which had been brought under colonial rule for the most part in the age of industrialization, Europeans and decimated the indigenous peoples, land rights, resource control, social status, and cultural inhabitants became increasingly clashed over.
In establishing America and Australia with growing administrative, legal, and educational systems, they drew heavily on precedents set in older colonies, particularly India.
They used the peoples who followed animistic religions or who had converted to Christianity against the Muslim communities in most colonies in west and east Africa.
It says a lot about general European attitudes toward the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa that the label itself is primitive ness and backwardness.
In southeast Asia, the colonizers tried to use hill-dwel ing "tribal" minorities against the majority populations that lived in the lowlands.
Favored minorities were recruited into the civil service and police in each colonial area.
The majority of Europeans lived in the capital city and the major provincial towns.
Many English schoolboys would go out as young whites and force all blacks to be administrators in the colonies because they said they were collecting taxes.
The main character in the story is a marriageable age to carry large packages.
They tried to justify their colonization.
The whites are sheltered from the worst weather.
Whites worry about mosquito bites after his struggle to stop a "native" uprising.
They fear bees.
They are afraid of the scorpion who lives, to take all the risks, to be reckless with his life, or to be content to find his reward in decaying roofs, under rubble, or in tunes.
As if a man worthy of gift of responsibility, the power of being in a little way a king; the name would worry about everything which lives, crawls, or so long as we know this and practise it, we will rule not moves around him.
American born in Martinique who was sensitive to the plight of the colonized in Africa.
African leader named Batouala complains of the burdens of his subordinates.
Some of the subordinates were Western educated.
Village leaders, local notables, and regional lords were recruited from the indigenous elite groups.
Thousands of Indian administrators and soldiers helped the British rule new areas in Asia and Africa.
In contrast to Java and India, where schools were heavily state supported, Western-language education in Africa was left to Protestant and Catholic missionaries.
Higher education was not promoted in Africa because of prejudice.
College graduates in Africa were not as common as in India, the Dutch East Indies, or even smaller Asian colonies.
The growth of the middle class in black Africa was hampered by this policy.
The dangers posed by college graduates were warned against by colonial policymakers.
According to this argument, those with advanced educations in the colonized were disgruntled when they couldn't find a job.
The growing tensions between the colonizers and the rising African and Asian middle classes reflected a larger shift in European social interaction with subject peoples.
The shift began long before the scramble for colonies in the 19th century.
The growing size and changing makeup of European ties in the colonies were critical factors.
It was possible to bring the wives and families of government officials and European military officers to the colonies, but not until the 20th century.
European women looked disapprovingly on the sons of European men and Asian or African women.
The importance of co-opting African and Asian rulers and elite social groups disapproval within the constricted world of for European empire building is vividly illustrated by this 1861 painting of Queen Victoria colonial communities and back home in Europe.
The growing number of missionaries thought of native dress attire for such a personage.
European women were once blamed for the growing social gap between colonizers and colonized.
Research shows that male officials bore most of the responsibility.
They established laws against interracial liaisons.
They wanted to keep social contacts between European women and the colonized at a minimum.
These measures limited European women in the colonies to a European world.
There were many "native" servants and "native" nannies for their children.