The process of teaching a skill is called shaping.
Muka's behavior is shaped by Kevin's reward for completing intermediate steps along the way.
Both visual and auditory sensory memory are called echoic.
(A) is inaccurate because of the shorter duration of the legendary memory.
The capacity of visual and auditory memory is the same.
The duration of the phone number read out loud should be longer than the information presented.
If both visual and auditory information are presented at the same time, the visual information is more likely to be transferred to long-term memory.
The principle of context- dependent memory states that information is more likely to be recalled in a situation similar to the one in which it was first created.
The process of new information pushing old information out of short-term memory, grouping of items of information in order to better hold them in short-term memory, and organizing short-term memory items are all referred to as choice.
Prosody is the term given to the tones and inflections added to language that elaborate meaning with no word alterations.
The rules that govern the arrangement and formation of words into meaningful phrases and sentences are referred to as choice, while the study of the smallest is referred to as study of the smallest.
Telegraphic speech is a common occurrence in toddlers who are combining words for the first time, it consists of two- or three-word utterances that are composed mostly of nouns, verbs, and adjectives with an absence of articles, conjunctions, and prepositions.
All of the answers involve two- or three-word utterances that fit that definition; (C) is an example of a single-word utterance of younger children that has a broad meaning.
When there are many possible solutions, we use the term "divergent thinking" to describe the problem-solving process.
When there is only one solution to the problem, (B) is the process used.
The intelligence quotient was originally conceived of as a ratio of mental age over chronological age, and was determined by comparing performance to that of others over a range of problem-solving tasks, which might involve both convergent and divergent abilities.
This type of knowledge must be part of the explicit memory in order for it to be recalled.
Semantic memory is the memory of facts and figures and Episodic memory is the memory of things.
Abraham Lincoln's presidency can't be repeated because no one living today was around to experience it.
The fact is not fact at all.
The answer is correct.
His effort to speak German is being hampered by his knowledge of Spanish.
Ben can't get past the physics problem because he's approaching it the same way as before.
This is a mental set.
Functional fixedness is a type of mental set; however, it is specifically concerning an object's intended use versus its other creative uses.
A representativeness heuristic is using a prototypical representation of an image or concept to judge a particular case, so eliminate, and insight learning refers to having a flash of insight to solve a problem all at once.
The question doesn't state that Ben has solved the problem.
False memories are involved in framing.
The answer is correct.
A prototypical representation is used to judge a case.
The mental image of a rose is an example of this.
Choice is an example of an availability heuristic, which pulls upon readily available images or memories, such as seeing advertisements recently.
Someone who is not limited by fixedness can solve her dilemma.
Confirmation bias and hindsight bias are described by choice.
He already knows something and is relating new knowledge to it.
A can't be the answer because functional fixedness only refers to using an object for its intended use.
There is no evidence that choice is related to grouping pieces of information.
Maintenance rehearsal is related to short-term memory only and depends on where the person is when he or she learns the information.
Choices can be eliminated.
The self-referential effect works because Sheldon is familiar with the new information.
This is the choice.
Content validity is a measure of the degree to which material on the test is balanced.
Measures of test reliability are referred to as choices (C, D, and E).
A projective test is one in which ambiguous stimuli, which are open to various kinds of interpretation, are presented, in contrast to the more common inventory-type tests in which participants answer standard series of questions.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective test that involves a series of pictures of people in ambiguous relationships with other people, and the Respondent's task is to generate a story for each picture, including what led up to the scene in the picture.
Inventory-style tests have participants faced with standardized answer choices.
A score of 85 is located approximately one standard deviation below the mean because the mean, median, and modal scores are distributed along a normal curve.
The original definition of IQ as mental age divided by physical age is attractive, but it doesn't affect where an IQ score is located relative to established means, medians, modes, or standard deviations.
The test results of groups or individuals with specific characteristics can be compared to the rest of the population with the help of test standardization.
In order to set these standards, the test is administered to a large sample of the entire population.
Choice refers to the measurement of validity, D is more of a way of ensuring reliability on tests where scoring is not computerized, and E is more about the format of the test than the population.
There are measurable intelligences in all of the dimensions listed except for (E), which is a dimension added by two other theorists, according to Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences.
If a subject takes the test multiple times, reliability is affected.
Choice calls into question current practices while validity is described.
Any experiment should have choice.
Generalizability is described by choice.
The answer is correct.
A multiple-choice question test that does not allow for much creativity is a true/false test.
The correct answer is (B), inventory-type test, since there is a very clear-cut answer to each question through multiple-choice responses.
The test could be about the intelligence, environment, or hereditary information, but none of these are the names for a multiple-choice test.
The key component in making sure a study is ethical is that the subjects are protected under confidentiality.
There needs to be a slight element of deception for the experiment to be successful, but the subject should be fully aware of the nature of the study.
A double-blind study doesn't guarantee an ethical study if it is testing a drug that is not yet safe for human consumption.
Validity and generalization have nothing to do with ethics, but rather effectiveness in what a test intends to measure internally and in a general population.
Eliminate (D) and (E) because methodology is not included.
The answer is correct.
The splaying of limbs in response to a falling sensation is a Moro response in newborns.
The Babinski and Choice reflexes are produced when the baby touches the bottom of the toes.
Whenever there is a sudden change in the environment, the orienting reflexes of (C) can be elicited.
The cognitive theory of Vygotsky stresses social and environmental factors, not just biological/maturational factors, as critical to development.
He believes that this level is hard to get due to a lack of optimal environmental circumstances.
Choices, Jean Piaget, and Sigmund Freud created alternate theories of development, while Leon Festinger is most closely associated with the theory of cognitive dissonance.
At each stage of life, from infancy to old age, a series of "conflicts" are described by the theory of development.
The resolution of this stage produces a sense of competence in one's own efforts and work.
A child of about five years old would be at the preoperational stage, which is characterized by both animism and egocentrism.
Choices are one of the stages of the model.
Choice is a stage in Freud's theory.
The theory of moral development divides it into three levels and two stages.
Young children progress through the first stage of preconventional morality because of the need to avoid punishment and receive rewards.
The next stage of the preconventional level is described by choice; the first stage of the conventional level is described by choice; and the first stage of the postconventional level is described by choice.
The belief that everyone gets what they deserve is not one of Kohlberg's levels.
When his mother is in the room, an infant who is securely attached will feel secure, as evidenced by his comfort.
The baby cries when she leaves the room, but is consoled when she returns.
The child's reaction would be different if he was attached.
The children in the experiment had different reactions.
Some children did not react as much when the mother left the room, and other children did a combination of both behaviors.
The answer is correct.
The amount of a material is the same in different forms.
The amount of water in the cup and vase is the same, though the water level may change.
Knowledge of figures and facts is intelligence.
fluid intelligence is mental agility, problem-solving ability, and other qualities that are not necessarily parroting back facts.
Assimilation is a type of learning.
Wisdom comes from life experiences.
Mira is making adjustments to her existing system since she learns that the object is a bookshelf instead of a desk.
She thought it would be like a desk.
You can cross out if it wasn't.
Functional fixedness is a type of mental set, but there is no problem-solving in this question.
Choice is a milestone from the preoperational stage.
The answer is correct.
Bandura's name is synonymous with observational learning.
Bandura believes that gender roles are partially observed by the individual.
Choice alludes to a behavioral perspective since it involves learning.
Bandura was not concerned with genetics apart from socializing.
Choice is an incomplete explanation for the subject of gender, aside from it not relating to Bandura's theories.
Choice is too extreme with the word "only" and does not address the observational nature of Bandura's work.
Bandura's research is consistent with E.
Secondary reinforcers are learned by association with primary reinforcers.
Satisfying basic needs is a primary drive, as is the attempt to maintain homeostatic equilibrium.
The law relates levels of arousal and task difficulty.
A high-difficulty task requires calm and relaxed levels of arousal.
The comparison of arousal and obtaining a primary reinforcer is incorrect.
Drive-reduction theory is involved in tasks related to homeostasis.
Remaining calm and addressing envelopes is a low-arousal and low-difficulty task.
Angiotensin is a chemical messenger that is released when the brain senses low fluid levels and stimulates thirst.
Choice is a brain chemical that is similar to an opiate, but it has nothing to do with thirst or the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
An external factor that motivates behavior but doesn't originate within the individual performing the behavior is called an "extrinsic factor".
In Rhoni's case, feeling the need to excel at her career in order to keep up her family's lifestyle and her parents' opinion of her qualifies as being primarily from outside of her, though she may enjoy the lifestyle herself.
Choice would be a factor that originated within the individual displaying the behavior; D and E would also describe such internal factors.
As compared to Type-B personality, Type-As have a greater arousal response to stress and a greater tendency to seek it out, as in (B); they also tend to be more competitive, as in (E), more prone to stress-related physical conditions.
Part of being easier to arouse is that type-As are less likely to anger slowly.
Sanju needs to eat something to reduce the need because the drive is hunger.
She may be thirsty, but that is not stated in the question, nor will a donut cause thirst.
It is not certain that the donut will raise the levels of diabetes in the body, so choice is the only provable response.