There are causes of reduced social, recreational, and work activities.
Despite the dangers, continues to use.
Despite worsening physical or psychological problems, the use continues.
Experience tolerance and need more substance for the desired effect.
Attempting to end use experiences withdrawal.
The user's brain chemistry changes with repeated exposure to a psychoactive drug.
It takes bigger doses to get the desired effect.
All of them do their work at the brain's neurotransmitters, the brain's own chemical messengers.
Alcohol is both a depressant and a stimulus in small amounts.
Alcohol is a depressant.
When tipsy restaurant patrons leave extravagant tips and social drinkers bond in groups, alcohol is an equal-opportunity drug.
When sexually aroused men become more aggressive, it increases harmful tendencies.
80 percent of the male attackers and 70 percent of the female victims had been drinking before the assaults, according to a University of Illinois campus survey.
A survey of 89,874 American collegians found alcohol or drugs involved in almost 80 percent of unwanted sexual intercourse experiences.
Both men and women prefer casual sex when drinking.
If you're sober, you're more likely to act upon urges that are drunk.
Girls and young women can become addicted to alcohol more quickly than boys and young men, and they are at risk for lung, brain, and liver damage at lower consumption levels.
Women with alcohol use disorder have smaller brains than women in a control group.
Alcohol slows the activity of the sympathetic nervous system.
It relaxes the drinker.
It causes reactions to slow, speech to slur, and skilled performance to decline in larger doses.
Alcohol and sleep deprivation make it a potent sedative.
The result can be deadly if physical effects are added to lowered inhibitions.
Each year hundreds of thousands of people die in alcohol-related accidents and violent crime.
People's qualms about drinking and driving diminish as blood-alcohol levels rise.
Almost all drinkers who had insisted when sober that they would not drive under the influence later decided to drive home from a bar even if given a Breathalyzer test and told they were intoxicated.
When heavy drinking follows an earlier period of moderate drinking, it can be life threatening.
People can poison themselves with overdoses that will cause their bodies to throw up.
The firefighters demonstrated the trauma of an alcohol-related car accident to high school students.
Alcohol consumption can lead to feelings of invincibility, which can be dangerous behind the wheel of a car.
Heavy drinking can have long-term effects on the brain.
Binge drinking contributes to nerve cell death and reduces the birth of new nerve cells in rats.
It impairs the growth of synaptic connections.
In humans, heavy drinking can lead to unconsciousness in which drinkers can't remember what happened the night before.
The way alcohol suppresses REM sleep helps fix the day's experiences into permanent memories.
Sometimes we mind-wander to give our brains a break, but unintentionally, we can cause regret if we endanger ourselves or others.
Alcohol reduces self-awareness by focusing attention on arousing situations and distracts it from normal inhibitions and future consequences.
People who feel good about themselves are more likely to drink than people who feel bad about themselves.
Losing a business deal, a game, or a romantic partner can lead to a drinking binge.
Expectations affect behavior.
Expectations help explain why adolescents drink when they're upset and alone.
It does increase the likelihood of developing a substance use disorder if you drink a lot.
Rutgers University men who volunteered for a study on alcohol and sexual stimulation were given either alcoholic or non alcoholic drinks.
The sex organ of the mind plays a part in alcohol's effect.
Fourteen "intervention studies" have educated college drinkers about that point.
Most participants reduced their drinking after coming away with lower expectations of alcohol.
Some barbiturates can be prescribed to induce sleep or reduce anxiety.
They can affect memory and judgement in larger amounts.
The total depression effect on body functions can be lethal if combined with alcohol.
As blissful pleasure replaces pain and anxiety, the user's pupils dilate and breathing slows.
If you become addicted to this short-term pleasure, you will pay a long-term price: a gnawing craving for another fix, a need for larger doses, and the extreme pain of withdrawal.
The brain will not have normal levels of painkilling neurotransmitters if the artificial opiate is withdrawn.
More and more people have died from overdoses in recent years because they were unable or unwilling to tolerate this state.
If you have a strong interest in shopping, it's not a physical addiction to a drug.
It does not involve obsessive craving.
A class of drugs called ___________ includes alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates.
Neural activity is stimulated and body functions are increased.
Pupils dilate, heart and breathing rates increase, and blood sugar levels rise, causing a drop in appetite.
Stimulants are used to feel alert, lose weight, or boost mood.
Students may try to boost their academic performance by taking drugs.
Stimulants offer only modest benefits.
If you use coffee, tea, soda, or energy drinks daily, you may be addicted to Stimulants.
You may crash into fatigue, headaches, and depression if you cut off from your usual dose.
If taken in the evening, a mild dose of caffeine can affect sleep.
Imagine if every 25,000 packs there was an occasional innocent-looking one filled with explosives instead of tobacco.
It's not a bad risk to have your head blown off.
The lost lives from these cigarettes are similar to those from actual cigarettes.
Each year, tobacco kills over 5 million customers worldwide, and a teen-to-the-grave smoker has a 50 percent chance of dying from the habit.
The number of tobacco deaths is expected to increase.
There is an overwhelming medical and scientific consensus that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer, heart disease, emphysema, and other serious diseases in smokers.
Tobacco products include cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco, pipe tobacco, snuff, and e-cigarettes.
Nicotine and tar are not harmful to users of e-cigarettes.
The sale of e-cigs has boomed as a result of this.
One's chances of using conventional cigarettes can increase if one uses e-cigarettes.
Companies sometimes claim that e-cigarettes don't help smokers quit.
HIV patients who smoke are less likely to die from the disease.
The life expectancy of smokers is at least 10 years shorter than that of non smokers.
Smoking would increase life expectancy more than any other preventive measure.
Tobacco products are addictive.
Attempts to quit smoking in the first few weeks are often unsuccessful.
A tripled rate of mind wandering can be caused by nicotine-deprived smokers trying to focus on a task.
They tend to underestimate the power of cigarette cravings when they aren't craving a cigarette.
Smoking cures weight problems.
A single cigarette is all it takes to get over a cigarette craving.
Within 7 seconds, the central nervous system will release a flood of neurotransmitters.
Epinephrine will reduce appetite and boost mental efficiency.
Dopamine and opioids will calm anxiety and reduce sensitivity to pain.
After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, some 1 million Americans returned to smoking.
People with major depression are more likely to see their attempts to quit go up in smoke.
It takes twice as long for nicotine to reach the brain as it does for heroin.
3 in 4 smokers wish they could stop, but these rewards keep them smoking.
Only 1 in 7 people who want to quit will be able to resist.
Those who know they are committing suicide may not be able to stop it.
Repeated attempts seem to pay off.
Half of Americans who have ever smoked have quit, aided by a nicotine replacement drug and encouragement from a support group.
Lindson-Hawley et al.
argue that it is best to quit abruptly.
Success is equally likely if smokers quit abruptly or gradually.
The craving and withdrawal symptoms gradually diminish over the next six months for those who endure.
Only 10 percent of people who have been Abstinence for a year will return in the next year.
Nonsmokers may live a happier life.
Smoking is associated with higher rates of depression, chronic disabilities, and divorce.
Both years to life and life to years can be added by healthy living.
ANSWER: Nicotine withdrawal symptoms include strong cravings, insomnia, anxiety, distractibility, and difficulty concentrating.
If your friend sticks with it, the craving and withdrawal symptoms will go away over the next six months.
Cocaine is derived from the coca plant.
An extract of that plant was used in the recipe for Coca-Cola to make a cocaine tonic.
It enters the bloodstream quickly, producing a rush of euphoria that depletes the brain's supply of neurotransmitters.
Within the hour, a crash of depression follows as the drug's effect wears off.
The craving for more goes away after several hours, but comes back again several days later.
cocaine can heighten reactions in situations thattrigger aggression.
Humans who ingest high amounts of cocaine in laboratory experiments impose higher shock levels on their presumed opponent than do those who don't.
Cocaine use can lead to convulsions, cardiac arrest, or respiratory failure.
The situation and the user's expectations and personality also play a role in the psychological effects of cocaine.
2.5 percent of U.S. high school seniors and 6 percent of British 18- to 24-year-olds have tried cocaine in the past year according to national surveys.
Half of them had smoked crack.
You become a new man because of cocaine.
The user's energy and mood go up as body functions speed up.
The parent drug for the highly addictive one is amphetamines.
The release of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which stimulates brain cells that enhance energy and mood, leads to eight hours of heightened energy and euphoria.
Its effects may include insomnia, hypertension, seizures, social isolation, depression, and occasional violent outbursts.
The user with continuing depressed functioning may be left with baseline dopamine levels reduced by methamphetamine.
The woman's meth addiction led to physical changes in 18 months.
As an amphetamine derivative, ecstasy causes dopamine release, but its major effect is releasing stored serotonin and blocking its reuptake, thus prolonging serotonin's feel-good flood.
Users feel the effects about a half-hour after taking the pill.
During the 1990s, ecstasy's popularity soared as a "club drug" taken at nightclubs and all-night dance parties.
60 million tablets are consumed annually in Britain due to the drug's popularity.
There are reasons not to be excited about it.
The dehydrating effect can lead to severe overheating, increased blood pressure, and death.
It has been shown that long-term exposure to brain serotonin can lead to decreased output and increased risk of permanently depressed mood.
The immune system, memory, and sleep are all affected by ecstasy.
Ecstasy is good for the night but bad for tomorrow.
MDMA can produce a high and feelings of intimacy.
Repeated use can cause permanent damage to the brain.
Some drugs, such as MDMA, are synthetic.
Mild hallucinogen marijuana is a natural substance.
The brain hallucinates in the same way if provoked to hallucinate by drugs, loss of oxygen, or extreme sensory deprivation.
Simple geometric forms such as a lattice, cobweb, or spiral are what the experience begins with.
Some may be superimposed on a tunnel or funnel, others may be replays of past emotional experiences, as the next phase consists of more meaningful images.
Brain scans of people on an LSD trip show that their visual cortex becomes hypersensitive and strongly connected to their brain's emotion centers.
People feel separated from their body as the hallucination peaks.
The border between themselves and the external world is dissolved by their sense of self.
The sensations are similar to an altered state of consciousness reported by about 10 to 15 percent of those revived from cardiac arrest.
These experiences can promote personal growth and enhance spirituality.
It is difficult to resist wondering if a brain under stress makes the near-death experience.
People may experience similar hallucinations of geometric patterns during epileptic seizures.
While enduring monotony, isolation and cold, solitary sailors and polar explorers have done so.
People under the influence of hallucinogenic drugs often see a bright light in the center of the field of vision.
People's near-death experiences are very similar to this one.
Albert Hofmann, a chemist, accidentally took lysergic acid diethylamide on one Friday afternoon in April 1943.
He was reminded of a childhood mystical experience that had left him longing for another glimpse of "a miraculous, powerful, unfathomable reality" after seeing the result.
Users' mood and expectations color the emotional experience, but the perceptual distortions and hallucinations have some similarities.
Marijuana leaves and flowers contain a cannabinoid called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol.
Whether smoked or eaten, it is possible to get to the brain in about 7 seconds.
It is classified as a mild hallucinogen because it increases sensitivity to colors, sounds, tastes, and smells.
Marijuana is similar to alcohol in that it relaxes, disinhibits, and may produce a euphoric high.
Motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction time are impaired by alcohol and marijuana.
Ronald Siegel reported that "THC causes animals to make bad decisions."
It can have harmful side effects.
Marijuana and alcohol are not the same.
Within hours, alcohol is eliminated from the body.
Regular users experience less abrupt withdrawal and may achieve a high with smaller-than-usual drug amounts because of the fact that THC and its by-products linger in the body for more than a week.
This is different from typical tolerance in that repeat users need larger doses to feel the same effect.
According to the U.S. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, marijuana use alleviates chronic pain and nausea, is not associated with lung cancer, and is related to increased risk of traffic accidents.
A marijuana user's experience can be different.
Marijuana can make a person feel anxious or depressed.
The more often a person uses marijuana, the higher their risk of anxiety, depression, psychosis, or addiction.
The possession of small amounts of marijuana is now legal in some U.S. states.
The use of marijuana in the US increased from 7 to 13 percent between 2013 and 2016 due to greater legal acceptance.
The common feature of the drugs summarized is that they cause negative aftereffects that offset their immediate positive effects and grow stronger with repetition.
This explains tolerance and withdrawal.
Psychoactive drugs alter the brain and create pleasure.
The user needs more of the drug to get the desired effect.
Discontinuing use of the substance can cause withdrawal symptoms.
The 1970s saw a rise in drug use by North American youth.
Drug use declined sharply after increased drug education and a more realistic depiction of taking drugs in the media.
Drugs were glamorized in music and films after the early 1990s, when the cultural antidrug voice softened.
In the University of Michigan's annual survey of 15,000 U.S. high school seniors, the proportion who said there is "great risk" in regular marijuana use rose from 35 percent in 1978 to 79 percent in 1991, then retreated to 32 percent in 2015.
Marijuana use by high school seniors in the U.S. declined after peaking in 1978.
The percentage of high school seniors who said they had used alcohol, marijuana, or cocaine in the past 30 days declined from the late 1970s to the early 1990s.
Twins are more similar to each other in marijuana use.
Researchers are looking for genes that contribute to tobacco addiction and have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorder.
The brain's natural dopamine reward system is disrupted by the addictive drugs.
Studies of how drugs reprogram the brain's reward systems raise hopes for anti-addiction drugs that might block or blunt the effects of alcohol and other drugs.
Drug use affects other drugs as well.
18,115 Swedish adoptees were tracked in one study.
People with drug-abusing parents were more likely to abuse drugs.
Those with drug-abusing adoptive siblings had a doubled risk of drug abuse.
You will see that biological, psychological, and socialcultural factors interact to produce behavior in this text.
The feeling that life is meaningless and directionless has appeared in studies of youth and young adults.
It is common for school dropouts to be without a job, with little hope, and with little privilege.
Researchers can investigate drug use from different perspectives.
Sometimes the psychological influence is obvious.
Heavy users of alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine experience stress and are depressed.
Girls with a history of depression, eating disorders, or sexual or physical abuse are at increased risk for problematic substance use.
Youth are undergoing school or neighborhood transitions.
College and university students who have not yet achieved a clear identity are at greater risk.
By temporarily dulling the pain of self-awareness, psychoactive drugs may offer a way to avoid depression, anger, anxiety, or insomnia.
Early adolescence is when smoking starts.
Adolescents are vulnerable to smoking's appeal because they are self-conscious and think the world is watching their every move.
To project a mature image, to handle stress, or to get the social reward of acceptance by other smokers, they may first light up to imitate glamorous celebrities.
Cigarette companies have modeled smoking with themes that appeal to youths: attractiveness, independence, adventurousness, social approval.
Teens who start smoking have friends who smoke and offer them cigarettes.
The smoking rate is close to zero among teens whose parents and best friends are not smokers.
Kids don't smoke if their friends don't.
Nobody starts smoking after the vulnerable teen years.
Cigarette companies want to hook customers who will give them business for years to come.
A survey of European teens found that lifetime marijuana use ranged from 5 percent in Norway to more than eight times higher in the Czech Republic.
African-American teens have lower rates of drinking, smoking, and cocaine use than their white counterparts, according to independent U.S. government studies.
Orthodox Jews, Mormons, and the Amish have extremely low rates of alcohol and drug addiction.
Peers influence attitudes about substance use.
They throw the parties and give the drugs.
If an adolescent's friends use drugs, he or she will too.
The opportunity may not arise if the friends don't.
Teens who come from happy families, who do not begin drinking before age 15, and who do well in school do not use drugs because they rarely associate with those who do.
Peer influence is more than what friends say.
A study was done on sixth graders in 22 states.
Drinking dominates social occasions because students underestimate their peers' enthusiasm for alcohol and underestimate their views of its risks.
When students underestimate their peer drinking, alcohol use goes down.
The rate of substance abuse by college and university students is 2.5 times that of the general population.
The binge drinking rate of non members is twice that of Fraternity and SOg members.
Smoking rates have gone down, alcohol use has remained the same, and abuse of prescription drugs has gone up.
When friends stop using drugs, people who started using drugs are more likely to stop.
A study found that smokers tend to quit in groups.
When a spouse, friend, or co-worker stopped smoking, the odds of a person quitting increased.
Most soldiers who engaged in problematic drug use while in Vietnam stopped their drug use after returning home.
The traffic between friends' drug use and our own may be two-way.
Those who share our likes and dislikes are our friends.
Help young people discover their purpose in life and boost their self-esteem.
Attempt to modify peer associations or to "inoculate" youth against peer pressures by training them in refusal skills.
People rarely abuse drugs if they understand the physical and psychological costs, feel good about themselves and the direction their lives are taking, and are in a peer group that disapproves of using drugs.
The educational, psychological, and social-cultural factors may explain why 26 percent of U.S. high school dropouts, but only 6 percent of those with a postgraduate education, report smoking.
Substance use disorders affect everyone, not just the rich and the poor.
We have solutions to the public health crisis.
Those who start paving the neural pathways when they are young may find it hard to stop using nicotine.
Tobacco companies may have long-term customers.
Evidence shows that if cigarette manufacturers haven't hooked customers by early adulthood, they won't.
People who start drinking in their early teens are more likely to develop alcohol use disorder than people who start at 21 or after.
Possible explanations include a person's biological predisposition to both early use and later abuse, or alcohol use could modify a person's neural pathways.
You can check your answer by clicking on the e-book and Appendix C of the printed text.
According to research, trying to answer these questions on your own will improve retention.
Drug users need to take larger amounts of the drug in order to get the desired effect.
Alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates are depressants.
Long-term use of ecstasy can affect sympathetic nervous system activity.
Near-death experiences are very similar to experiences evoked by __________.
Drug use is related to inflated self-esteem.
You can find answers in the e-book and at the back of the printed text.