The Industrial Revolution in England and the French Revolution started Europe's momentous economic and political transformation.
The economic and political revolutions were separate until about 1816.
The dual revolution was brought about by economic and political changes after peace returned.
Europe was transformed by the dual revolution and had a powerful impact on the rest of the world.
Pankhurst was the leader of the powerful ideologies.
Britain gained the right to vote of the era and the great popular upheaval that followed in the years immediately after Europe in the revolutions of 1848.
European political leaders and middle-class nationalists began to deal with some of the problems posed by rapid urbanization after drawing the political geography of central Europe and unifying first Italy and then Germany.
European leaders encouraged their people to put their faith in a responsive national state.
The triumph of nationalism promoted rivalries between states and peoples, and in the twentieth century it brought an era of tragedy and decline in Europe.
As the Napoleonic era ended, the triumph of revolutionary economic and political forces was not certain.
The challenge for the leaders of the Quadruple Alliance was to build a settlement that would last and not cause another war.
France held a general peace settlement destructive generalized war in 1814-1815 and their efforts were largely successful.
After the peace settlement, intellectuals and social observers sought to map out the political changes that had occurred and were still taking place.
The new ideas rejected conservatism with its emphasis on tradition, a hereditary monarchy, and a strong landown ing aristocracy.
Alternative visions were developed by radicals and they tried to convince society to act on them.
The allies were prepared for the restoration of monarchy in France.
France did not have to pay war compensation after the first Peace of Paris, because the boundaries it had in 1789 were larger.
The allies were motivated by self-interest andtional ideas about the balance of power.
The Englishman on the left uses his money to counterbalance the people on the right.
Alexander is sitting on his prize.
The cartoon shows how the public thought about the Treaty of Vienna.
The Congress of Vienna made appropriate measures to maintain peace in Europe.
The Western century was dominated by realism.
The freeing of Russian serfs had called into being.
Carlsbad Decrees were issued in 1819 after the stock market crash.
The first social security laws to help investigate and punish workers who are liberal or radical in Germany.
The revolution embodied in America and France was responsible for a generation of war.
He was lied to that social reform in Great Britain was for peace and quiet.
The quest for national self-determination posed a grave threat to the torian Eric Hobsbawm used for the Habsburgs' Austrian Empire.
The state was dominated by Germans but contained economic and political changes that fused and reinforced other national groups.
Metternich served in a multinational state after 1816.
It was strong because of its large population and vast territories, and weak because of its many nationalities.
Austria was unable to accommodate the dual revolution's ideologies, so Metternich had to oppose liberalism and nationalism.
liberalism first realized successfully in the Ameri- before the law as well as such indi can Revolution and then achieved in part in the French Revolution, demanded freedom of the representative government and equality before the law.
The idea of liberty included freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
The five Great Powers of Russia, Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, and France dominated international politics after Napoleon's defeat.
Compare the geographical strengths and weaknesses of each Great Power.
liberalism did not fully succeed in those countries.
Liberalism faced more radical competitors in the early 19th century.
Opponents of liberalism criticized its economic principles, which were un restricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
The idea of a free economy nomic liberalism that emphasizes in 1776 in opposition to mercantilism and its attempt to regulate trade is a doctrine of eco Scottish philosopher Adam Smith.
Smith argued that the income of everyone would increase if there was unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference.
Liberal political ideals became associated with narrow class interests in the early 19th century.
The early-nineteenth-century liberals wanted property qualifications attached to the right to vote.
The vote was limited to well-to-do males.
Liberalism did not go far enough for universal voting rights, at least for males, as it became more identified with the middle class after 1814.
The democrats and republicans were more radical than the liberals, and they lent upheaval to achieve goals.
It was more of a dream than a reality as local dialects abounded, the inhabitants of different states wanted an independent state, and a variety of political states wanted an independent state.
European nationalists wanted the territory of each person to correspond with the boundaries of an independent nation-state.
When Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire were too small, or when the Italian peninsula and the German Confederation were too large, nationalism exploded in central and eastern Europe.
The development of a standardized national language that was spread through mass education created at least a superficial cultural unity was one of the reasons why the nationalist vision triumphed in the long run.
Those who believed in the new ideology wanted to create "imagined communities" and bind inhabitants around an abstract idea of national identity.
Ethnic festivals and flag-waving parades were used by nationalists and leaders to bring citizens together with emotional symbols and ceremonies.
The linking of these two concepts was due to a common faith in the creativity and nobility of the people.
The people were seen as the ultimate source of good government by liberals and democrats.
Early nationalists believed that every nation had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit.
The differences among peoples were stressed by early na tionalists.
In March 1848, Germans from the solid middle classes came together to draft a constitution for a new united Germany, as popular upheaval in France spread to central Europe.
The emergence of individualism in France, the rise of laissez faire, and the emergence of modern industry in England made the early French socialists aware of the political revolution in France.
They were against international cooperation and a sense of community because they saw these trends as fomenting selfish individualism and division within ideas.
They believed there was an urgent need for a further reorganization of so greater economic equality and state ciety to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
French socialists believed in economic planning.
The price controls and other emergency measures implemented in France inspired them to argue that the government should rationally organize the economy and help the poor.
Socialists believed that the government should regulate private property or that private property should be abolished.
Henri de Saint-Simon was an influential socialist thinker.
The doers would plan the economy, guide it, and improve conditions for the poor.
A socialist utopia of self-sufficient communities was envisioned by Charles Fourier.
The abolition of marriage, free unions based on love, and sexual freedom were called for by an early advocate of the total emancipation of women.
Karl Marx created the foundations for modern socialism.
Marx studied philosophy at the University of Berlin.
Marx believed that middle-class interests and those of the industrial working class were opposed to each other.
Marx predicted that the modern working class would be like the bourgeoisie.
Marx preferred class identity over national identity.
The conservative idea of inevitably leading to revolution was challenged by new alternative ideologies.
Pressure built up as a result of what led to the revolutions of As liberal, national, and socialist forces.
In some countries change was gradual and peaceful, but in other countries it was chaotic due to revolutionary political and social ideologies.
Variations on the basic theme were experienced by Great Britain, France, Austria, and Prussia.
The landowning aristocracy dominated British society, but that class was not closed or defined.
Only a small percentage of the population could vote for representatives to Parliament.
After the French Revolution threw the British ar istocracy into a panic, it was determined to defend its position.
The king and lords were persuaded to give in by a surge of popular protest.
The Reform Bil of 1832 increased the number of voters and made British politics more democratic.
The pressures in Great Britain were temporarily released.
Reform within the system appeared to be difficult but not impossible after a major reform.
The Ten Hours Act limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours.
Most of the Commons of the population was made up of Irish Catholic peasants, who rented their land from a small group of Church of England Protestants.
The Irish peasantry lived under terrible conditions in the 1800's.
In spite of terrible conditions, Ireland's population continued to increase due to the extensive cultivation of the potato.
In Ireland, the potato crop failed in 1845, 1847, and 1849.
The general result in Europe was high food prices.
Between 1845 and 1851, Ful y one mil lion emigrants went to the United States and Great Britain.
The Great Famine promoted Irish nationalism.
The economic and social gains made by sections of the middle class and the peasantry in the French Revolution were protected by the Constitutional Charter of 1814.
The charter was not democratic.
The king and his ministers made the nation's laws, and only a small group of males had the right to vote for them.
The situation in France remained the same despite Louis Philippe's acceptance of the Constitutional Charter of 1814.
Republicans, democrats, and the poor of Paris were disappointed.
The government's refusal to consider electoral reform heightened a sense of class injustice among shopkeepers and urban working people, and it eventually touched off a popular revolt in Paris in February 1848.
Louis Philippe abdicated after barricades went up.
The revolutionaries were committed to a democratic republic.
Building a republic meant giving every adult male the right to vote, and this was done quickly.
The abolition of the death penalty, the freeing of slaves in French colonies, and the es tablishment of national workshops as an alternative to capitalist employment were all examples of revolutionary compassion and sympathy for freedom.
The middle and upper classes in Paris were frightened by the socialism promoted by radical republicans because they owned land.
The French people elected a majority of moderate republicans who opposed any further radical social measures after they voted for delegates to the new Constituent Assembly.
The clash of ideologies -- of liberal capitalism and socialism -- became a clash of classes and arms after the election.
Workers rose in a violent uprising when the national workshops in Paris were dissolved.
The republican army stood triumphant in a sea of blood and hatred after three terrible June days.
The revolution in France failed.
The middle and working classes were locked in mortal combat in February.
A strong executive was part of the consti tution that replaced a generous democratic republic.
Louis Napoleon, nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, won an election in December of 1848.
The initial revolutionary breakthrough was offered in a French illustration.
The Statue of Liberty and the discarded crowns symbolize republican freedom, which is achieved by the peoples of Europe.
The woman wearing pants at the base of the statue is a feminist.
President Napoleon shared power with the National Assembly.
Louis Napoleon seized power in a coup d'etat after dismissing the Assembly.
He called on the French to make him emperor, and 97 percent of them voted to do so in a national referendum.
Louis Napoleon ruled France until 1870.
As he liberalized his empire, his government became less authoritarian.
The news of the upheaval in France prompted demands from liberals for written constitutions, representative government, and more civil liberties from authoritarian regimes.
Popular revolts were owed by governments when they hesitated.
The street battle of March 18, 1848 was between the troops of King Frederick Wil iam IV and the civilians.
paving stones were used as weapons by revolutionaries across Europe.
During the revolution, the tricolor flag became the symbol of a united and democratic Germany.
The monarchies collapsed in the face of this united front.
In France, the popular revolutionary coalition broke down.
The revolution in the Austrian Empire began in Hungary in the 19th century.
The Habsburg emperor Ferdinand I promised reforms and a liberal constitution when students and workers took to the streets.
The coalition of revolutionaries was not stable.
When the monarchy abolished serfdom, the newly free peasants lost interest in politics.
The coalition was destroyed by conflicting national ambitions.
The Hungarian revolutionary leaders pushed through a constitution in March.
The minority groups that made up half of the population were against unification.
Each had the right to political and cultural freedom.
The conflict between Czech nationalists and German nationalists took place in the city of Prague.
The Austrian Empire's conflicting national ambitions allowed the monarchy to play off one ethnic group against the other.
The army crushed a working-class revolt in the Czech Republic in June.
The regular Austrian army attacked the student and working-class radicals in Vienna in October and retook the city.
Austria's aristocracy and army were the final ingre dients in the triumph of reaction and the defeat of revolution.
Hungary had yet to be brought under control when Ferdinand abdicated in favor of his nephew.
Nicholas I of Russia lent a hand.
Russian troops subdued Hungary in June 1849.
The Habsburgs ruled Hungary for a long time.
Prussia was the most influential German kingdom after Austria.
Prussia was supposed to become a liberal constitutional monarchy prior to 1848 in order to transform the German Confederation into a uni fied nation.
Prussia's King Frederick William IV caved in to the middle-class liberals in the struggle against the monarchy when the artisans and factory workers in Berlin exploded.
Prussia was promised a liberal constitution and a new German state on March 21.
The federal constitution for a unified German state was written by a self-appointed committee of liberals from various German states.
King Frederick William of Prussia was elected emperor of the new German national state in 1849 after the drafting of a liberal constitution.
Austria objected to Frederick William getting the smal monarchs of Germany to vote for him emperor.
Louis Napoleon's triumph in 1848 and his authoritarian rule in the 1850s provided the old ruling classes with a new model in politics.
In central Europe, the answer came with the unification of Italy and Germany.
The Russian empire experienced political crises, but they were different from those in Italy or Germany because Russia was already a multinational state built on military conquest.
The changes that allow a country to compete effectively with the leading countries at a given time are called effec.
The unification of Italy was made possible by the leadership of Sardinia-Piedmont, nationalist fervor, and the attack on the kingdom of the Two Sicilies.
Prior to 1850, Italy had never been a unified nation.
Italy was reorganized in 1814 at the Congress of Vienna.
Lombardy and Venetia were given to Austria.
Tuscany shared north-central Italy with several smaller states under the rule of an Italian monarch.
The Bourbons ruled Naples and Sicily while the papacy ruled central Italy and Rome.
The goal of a unified Italian nation captured the imaginations of many Italians, but there was no agreement on how it could be achieved.
Pope Pius IX turned against most modern trends after the turmoil of 1848.
Victor Emmanuel, king of independent Sardinia, retained the moderate liberal constitution he granted under duress.
Sardinia appeared to be a liberal, progressive state that was ideally suited to achieve the goal of national unification.
Sardinia was led by Count Camillo Benso di Cavour.
Cavour's national goals were limited and realistic.
He only wanted unity for the states of northern and central Italy.
In July 1858, Cavour wentaded Austria into attacking Sardinia, after working out a secret diplomatic alliance with Napoleon III.
The Franco-Sardinian forces were victorious, but Napoleon III decided on a peace with the Austrians.
Lombardy is the area around Milan.
Cavour signed in anger.
Cavour's plans were salvaged by popular revolts and Italian nationalism.
While the war against Austria raged 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 800-381-0266 The people of central Italy voted overwhelmingly to join the kingdom of Sardinia after Cavour returned to power.
Cavour's original goal was to create a north Italian state.
The job of unification was incomplete for Giuseppe Garibaldi.
The romantic revolutionary nationalism of 1848 was personified by a poor sailor's son.
Garibaldi emerged as an independent force in Italian politics in 1860 after leading a unit of volunteers to several victories over Austrian troops.
Cavour supported a plan to liberate the king dom of the Two Sicilies.
The Sicilian peasantry rose in rebellion after landing on the shores of Sicily in May 1860.
In defiance of the royal army, Garibaldi captured Palermo, crossed to the mainland, and prepared to attack Rome and the pope.
Cavour sent Sardinian forces to take over most of the Papal States.
The union of north and south was sealed when Victor and Garibaldi rode through Naples.
The new kingdom of Italy, which did not include Venice until 1866 or Rome until 1870, was a parliamentary monarchy.
Only a small group of Italians had the franchise.
The common people and prop ertied classes were not on the same page.
The gap between the north and south was rated a great social and cultural gap.
Austria and Prussia sought to block the power of the other within the German Confederation in the aftermath of 1848.
The politi cal status quo was being undermined by powerful economic forces.
All of the German states except Austria joined the customs union by 1854.
Prussia emerged from the upheavals of 1848 with a parliament that was in the hands of the liberal middle class by 1859.
Prussia's King William I wanted to raise taxes and increase the defense budget to double the army's size.
The liberals won the new elections after the military budget was rejected.
Count Otto von Bismarck was called on by King William to head a new ministry.
The government would rule without the consent of the parliament, as was declared by the chief minister when he took office.
The great questions of the day will not be decided by speeches and resolutions.
Even though the parliament refused to approve the budget, the bureaucracy went right on collecting taxes.
The goal of the Austro-Prussian War was to get rid of German politics.
The most triumphant welcome ever given to a foreigner was given to GIUSEPPE GARIBALDI when he visited England in 1864.
He was honored and feted by politicians and high society.
A crowd of half a million people cheered his carriage through the streets of London.
These ovations were not a coincidence.
Garibaldi was the most famous and beloved figure in the world in his time.
He had a rare combination of wild adventure and extraordinary achieve ment.
Garibaldi went to sea at fifteen and sailed the Mediterranean for twelve years.
Garibaldi escaped to South America after being sentenced to death for his part in a revolutionary uprising.
He was the leader of a band that fought for independence from Argentina.
He found a tough young woman, Anna da Silva, a mate and companion in arms.
Their first children were almost starving in the jungle while Garibaldi was a fearless freedom fighter.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, the charismatic leader, was shown in an cratic nationalists after the campaigns of his patriotic volunteers against the Austrians.
His army was going to be based on a photograph.
Garibaldi's achievement was similar to his legend.
The handsome and inspiring leader was a brilliant fighter.
Welcoming runaway slaves as equals is an uncompromising idealist of absolute integrity.
He never drew per Latin America, advocated the emancipation of women, sonal profit from his exploits, and never introduced social reforms in the south.
The left-leaning volunteers were dismantled and humiliated, even as Italy's national hero fought for freedom, when Victor Emmanuel was offered lands and titles after his great victory in 1861.
The common people said he couldn't be bought off.
He loved coming back to his farm.
In history, ideas and ideals count.
Millions of ordinary men and women are identified with 1.
They believed that he was fighting for them.
He remained true to the 19th century despite being recognized as one of their own.
The map shows how Prussia expanded and a new German Empire was created after the FrancoPrussian War of 1870-1871.
The Protestant states north of the Main River were grouped in the new North German Confederation.
The army and foreign affairs were under the control of the fed eral government.
The parliament of Prussia was asked to approve after it was learned that the govern ment's "il egal" spending took place between 1862 and 1866.
The liberals jumped at the chance to work together.
The government's spending was legalized with German unity in sight.
The German middle class accepted the authority of the monarch and the superiority of the nobility when the constitutional struggle in Prussia ended.
The patriotic war with France followed the final act of German unification.
The issue of Prussia's William I becoming king of Spain was just a diplomatic one.
The German forces won at Sedan on September 1, 1870.
The French in Paris proclaimed another French republic three days later.
After five months, a starving Paris sur was rendered, and France accepted the harsh peace terms.
The south Ger man states agreed to join the new German Empire.
The lower house of the legislature in the new German Empire was elected by universal male suffrage, as was the power of the king and his ministers.
The Franco-Prussian War made Germans feel patriotic.
The German Empire had become Europe's most powerful state and most Germans imagined themselves to be the best in Europe.
In Germany, a new conservatism based on an alliance of the propertied classes and the active support of the working classes had triumphed.
Russia was a poor society with a rapidly growing population in the 1850s.
The conflict between France and the Ottoman Empire over who should protect Christian shrines in the Empire brought about the crisis.
Russia was humiliated by France and Great Britain.
Russia has fallen behind western Europe in many areas.
The war caused hardship and raised the specter of massive peas ant rebellion.
The new tsar, Alexander II, and his ministers were forced along the path of rapid social change due to military disaster.
The freeing of the serfs was the greatest of the reforms.
Roughly half of the land was given to the emancipated peasants.
They had to pay high prices for their land because it was owned by peasant villages.
The re form had limited effects.
Independent courts and equality before the law were established as a result of the reform of the legal system.