ChAPTER 35 -- Part 1: A Second Global Conflict and the
The Japanese armies forced tens of thousands of European and American captured prisoners to marches to remote prison camps after they conquered southeast Asia in 1941-1942.
Many of the people who survived the "death marches" died in internment.
The Japanese soldiers were standing guard over the American prisoners of war just before the "death march" began.
People in southeast Asia watched as soldiers, nurses, bureaucrats, and merchants were marched to prison camps.
Many died on the way and many more died in captivity.
The Japanese wanted to be seen as liberators--fellow Asians who would bring a new order and better lives to peoples who have been subjected to alien rule.
He said that he would be little better as a ruler than the Western imperialists.
The Indonesians and other peoples who were colonized by the Japanese soon realized that their new masters were going to be much more brutal than the Dutch, British, or Americans.
Forced labor systems were often introduced by the Japanese to extract the raw materials they needed to fight the Pacific war, alienating the peasants and workers who made up the majority of their subjects.
Some within the Allied leadership thought that Sukarno was a front man for these campaigns.
His insistence that he was working to revive nationalist resistance to both the Japanese and Western colonizers is supported by a lot of evidence.
The intelligence officers who shadowed him at every step as he spoke at mass rallies and to paramilitary forces being trained by the Japanese were tricked by a highly charismatic speaker.
His Japanese handler wouldn't understand what he said because he spoke in a foreign language.
The decolonization movements that swept Asia and Africa after 1945, like many of the leaders, used the power vacuum created by the Pacific war to organize nationalist resistance.
He declared Indonesia's independence as the fighting ended in 1945.
In this chapter, we will see that World War II was a global conflict.
The Western colonial powers were defeated early in the war.
Many of these leaders lacked the political base to deal with the problems that faced their new states, which were often artificially patched together, ethnically and religiously divided, and economically disadvantaged.
As a result of his failures and the machinations of the superpowers locked in cold war rivalries, Sukarno was overthrown by military leaders who often seized power in nations emerging from colonial rule.
The war added to the destructive potential of contemporary conflict and blurred the lines between civilians and the military.
The war's consequences included a flawed settlement which led to the struggles of the cold war and the decolonization movement in Asia and Africa.
Moderate political nations that had parties won until the end of the 1930s, despite the gradual militarization of Japan.
In World War I, there were grievances of regional diplomatic crises.
The nationalistic forces in China were able to get the related to World War I because they had the upper hand over the regional warlords who had dominated Chinese politics since the early 1900s.
The economic havoc and social tensions brought on by the win of the support of intellectuals, students, the business classes, and the rural gentry was compounded by the head of the Guomindang (or Nationalist) party.
His military successes against the southern and northern warlords seemed destined to unify China under a strong central government for the first time in decades.
Japan's army officers were worried that China would resist the control the Japanese had over Manchuria since their victory in the Russo-Japanese war in 1905.
The Japanese military seized Manchuria in 1931 because they were afraid of curbs on their expansionist aims on the mainland and weak civilian governments at home.
The change of regimes in Germany was more radical than the gradual shift of power to the military in Japan.
The parliamentary government was under siege from the time the armistice was agreed to in 1918 until after they signed the treaty.
The Great Depression struck just as economic recovery appeared to be gaining real momen tum, but Weimar had survived these humiliations, civil war, and the hyperinflation of the mid-1920s.
The Nazis promised to put the German people back to work, restore political stability, and set in support during the economic chaos motion a remilitarization program that would throw off the shackles of what Hitler of the great Depression had done.
As the Depression deepened, Hitler promised to turn back the communist attempt to take power in Germany.
Aggressive foreign policy to communists in the east was linked to the threat of the leader.
The political and diplomatic system created by the Versailles settlement was a priority of the Nazis' political agenda when they were in power.
The Nazis fulfilled key aspects of their promise, beginning with rearmament from 1935, the militarization of the Rhineland in 1936, and a forced union with Austria in 1938.
The Global Devastation war had changed a lot before the 20th century after the seizure of areas in Czechoslovakia where German-speakers were in the majority.
War lost its ritual characteristics with state centralization.
In the 18th century, the development of total war became an all-out battle, using any tactics in the West.
Weapons that would aid in victory during the French Revolution.
In other words, war became building new power for the state in contact with ordinary citizens, less restrained than it had been among less bureaucratized introduced mass conscription of men, forming larger armies than peoples who often used bluff and scare had ever before been possible.
The features of total war made mockery of earlier cavalry charges and redefined the kind of struggle needed to fight in war.
Management boards were included in the organization for war.
Mobilization of the labor force can produce at least temporary breakthrough for women.
Side planning and rationing were often produced by government control of economic activity.
The invention of control of media, synthetic rubber, and the production of nitrites in chemistry labs were some of the effects of more general economic benefit.
It was designed to encourage passionate, all-out commitment to the national idea of throwing resources into a military effort made cause and deep, unreasoned hatred of the enemy.
Posters are more economical and disruptive than before.
embittered veterans were made emotional mobilize in the war.
All of these features could be used to vent their anger and vengeance in World War II, from the new technologies.
It made postwar diplomacy more difficult.
One for aerial bombing, rocketry, and ultimately the atomic bomb to result of total war was a tendency for the victor to be inflexible in the enhanced economic mobilization organized by government negotiations at war's end.
People who fought and had planners.
People who were affected by the character of war were the most generous.
The result of a quest for vengeance the troops whobled and died from--the new often produced new tensions that led directly, and quickly, to fur weaponry.
A blurring of the conflict was a defining measure of total war.
War-caused passions and disruptions could lead to a distinction between military and civilians, a distinction that can lead to new violence at home, and crime rates often soared not only right, but had limited war's impact earlier in world history.
For longer periods of civilian populations, not just those unfortunate enough to be near time, but whole after the war ended.
The most modern weaponry was reflected in children's toys.
The bombing raids were determined by the consequences of the war.
Historians believe that total war made rational Total war more difficult than earlier types of results.
During the invasion Italian pilots bombed defenseless cities and highly mechanized armies used poisonous gases against resistance forces with little more than rifles.
The fascists shocked the world by unleashing these weapons on a civilian population that had no means of defending itself.
Hitler and Mussolini were involved in the Spanish Civil War in the hopes of establishing an allied regime.
Mussolini's mechanized forces were effective against the overmatched, left-leaning armed forces of the Spanish republic.
Both the Italian and German air forces used the Spanish conflict as a training ground for their bomber pilots.
Their main targets were ground forces and civilians in Spain's cities and villages.
Franco's destruction of the elected republican government and seizure of power was dependent on the support of Mussolini and Hitler.
The Soviet Union sought to provide military aid to Spain's republicans, except for volunteer forces recruited in England, France, the United States, and other democracies.
Relief attempts were futile in the face of relentless assaults by Franco's legions and both Nazi and Fascist forces.
Franco refused to join the global war that broke out after he crushed the republic and began a dictatorship that would last for decades.
The Japanese seizure of Manchuria in 1931 can be seen as part of a global conflict that raged for a decade between 1930 and 1931.
World War II was provoked by the deliberate aggressions of Nazi Germany and a militarized and imperialist Japan, unlike the coming of World War I, in which the leaders of Europe more or less blundered into.
The militarist expansionism of what came to be called the Axis powers was fed by the failure of the Western democracies and the Soviet Union to respond to these challenges.
Voters who had no appetite for another world war kept the British prime minister from power.
The socialist leaders of France were afraid of german air assaults because they were responsible for British Rival politicians.
Although Nazi aggressions have been stressed as the cause of World War II, the Japanese military actually moved first.
In the second half of 1937, from their puppet state, Manchuria, they launched a massive invasion of China proper.
The army launched an ill-advised campaign to conquer the whole of China because of a trumped-up incident that led to a fire fight between Japanese and Chinese troops.
Prominent naval leaders and civilian politicians were uneasy about the American and British reaction to another round of Japanese aggression in China.
They were largely cowed into silence by the threat of assassination by fanatical junior army officers and renewed appeals to patriotic solidarity in a situation where Japanese soldiers were at risk.
By the end of 1938, most of the coastal cities, including Shanghai, were occupied by the Japanese, as well as the hinterlands behind cities in the north.
As Chinese resis tance stiffened, Japanese soldiers retaliated against both the Chinese fighters and civilians.
In many instances, Japanese forces took out their anger on the Chinese troops and the civilian population when they captured the city of Nanjing in December 1937.
The world war that began today was caused by Chinese resistance to Japanese invaders in 1937.
The nationalist capital of the war was deep in the interior of the city of Chongqing.
Japan and China were engaged in a massive and deadly contest for control of all of east Asia long before the Japanese attacks on Pearl Harbor in late 1941 that greatly expanded the war in Asia.
The partition of Poland and Nazi preparations for war in the west caused the Japanese to plunge into war.
The Tripartite Pact was not signed until September 1940, when the war was well under way in Europe and east Asia.
The training of the officers and troops that fought to contain the Japanese invasion of China was greatly aided by the help of Nazi military advisors.
With a pause to consolidate Germany's stunning gains in central Europe from 1936 to 1938, Hitler now concentrated his forces on the drive to the Slavic east, which he had long staked out as the region that would provide living space for the Germanic master race.
He signed a non-aggression pact with Stalin in August of 1939 to prepare for the assault on the Soviet Union.
Military emissaries of the two dictators negotiated a division of the smaller states that separated their empires, and Stalin swallowed short-term disappointments, such as the division of Poland, to prepare the Soviet Union for the invasion that most observers were now convinced was inevitable.
Within days of the agreement being signed, Hitler ordered the Wehrmacht, or Nazi armies, to overrun western Poland and the Soviets occupied the eastern half of the country.
The brutal Nazi invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, put an end to any doubts about Hitler's contempt for treaties and reassured Germany that its territorial ambitions had been satisfied by the absorption of Czechoslovakia into the Nazi Reich.
The Czechs were betrayed by Allied leaders and watched as Hitler took control of the tiny democracy in the spring of 1939.
The armies of both powers dug in along the defensive lines that had been established in eastern France in the late 1920s.
Between 1914 and 1918, they waited for the Nazis to turn to the west for further conquests and prepared for another defensive war like the one they had managed to survive.
The second world war would be vastly different from the first because of the new configuration of powers in Europe and the Pacific who believed they were committing themselves.
Both the Western democracies and the theaters spread across europe were unwilling to react in a decisive manner, which made possible crushing and almost unremitting victories in north Africa and Asia.
The tide of the war shifted in favor of the Allies when the Nazis were bogged down in the expanses of the Russian steppes and the United States entered.
The Japanese invasion of China was more powerful in terms of population size, potential industrial production and technological advancement than the Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union.
The Nazi war machine captured France and the Low Countries with stunning speed, forcing the British armies to beat a fast.
The fate of a large chunk of humanity seemed destined for a long period of Nazi rule as Germany appeared unstoppable.
The effective deployment of mechanized troop carriers resulted in the Poles being overwhelmed in 1939 and the French and British being routed in the spring of 1940.
The Germans will punish World War II adversaries.
The Dutch port of Rotterdam was almost leveled by the Nazis in the early 1940s, killing over 40,000 people.
The collapse of France was a consequence of the weak leadership displayed by the republic in the 1930s.
The governments had come and gone as if.
Left and right were at odds over rearming, responding to the Nazis, and ying with the British and the Soviets.
France was demoralized and vulnerable to the Wehrmacht's offensives when the war broke out.
Britain and the other Western democracies in Europe survived because of the Nazi occupations of Norway and southern France.
The Nazi empire in Europe and the Middle east fell at the cost of tens of millions of lives.
The air offensive made possible by the introduction of radar devices for tracking German assault aircraft was made possible by the strong leadership of the Nazis and innovative air tactics.
The bravery of Britain's royal family and the high cities, as well as the British innovative spirit, made the bombing raids seem to enhance.
Unable to destroy air tactics and radar tracking of Britain's air defenses or break the resolve of its people, Hitler and the Nazi high command had to use german assault aircraft.
Most of Europe and the Mediterranean were controlled by the Germans by mid-1941.
They saved the Italians' campaign to conquer Albania.
In the case of Sweden, they forced the neutralization of the countries.
They continued on to capture most of the islands of the Mediterranean and launched motorized offensives across north Africa and on to Egypt.
The aim of these campaigns was to cut Britain off from its Asian empire.
His death was presented to the german public as a result of war injuries.
Hitler and the Nazi high command turned to the south and east in the first years of the war in Europe because they were frustrated by British defiance.
In the summer and early fall of 1941, Nazi forces numbering 3.5 mil ion drove the poorly prepared and understaffed Soviet forces out of several Baltic states and the Ukraine.
Despite the losses, the Soviet resistance did not collapse.
Stalin ordered the relocation of Soviet industry to protect them from German aerial attacks.
As with Napoleon's invasion nearly a century and a half earlier, Russian resistance stiffened as winter approached, and the Germans drove east on the outskirts of Moscow and Leningrad.
The harsh winter caught the German forces unprepared while their Russian adversaries used terrain and weather conditions they knew well to retaliate.
Hundreds of thousands of partisans fought back against the Nazis after their mass killings of the Slavic peoples.
The irregular forces fought behind the German lines.
Nazi brutality was a major obstacle to the conquest of the Soviet Union and many of the Ukrainians were initially at least inclined to back the Germans.
The German offensives in the spring of 1942 again drove deep into Russia, but failed to capture key cities like Moscow, Leningrad, and Stalingrad, as well as the great Baku oil fields in the south of the country.
The two sides clashed in some of the greatest battles of the entire war, including Kursk, which featured thousands of tanks deployed by each of the adversaries.
The Germans were closer to knocking the Soviets out of the war than they were a year ago.
The failure of the Nazi attempt to capture Stalingrad in the winter of 1942 and 1943 was a turning point in the war in the east.
The Soviet armies went on the offensive in 1943 at a number of points along the German front.
The retreat from the Soviet Union began with staggering losses in lives and equipment, despite Hitler's rants that they die in place.
Poland and much of east central Europe were captured by the Red armies in the late 1940s.
The destruction of Hitler's "thousand-year reich" was only months away.
Hitler's war against the Jews was a vendetta against homosexuals, gypsies, and Jews.
During the German offensives into eastern Europe and Russia in the early 1940s, Jews, Poles, and communists were killed in mass executions.
After a "Final solution" for the "Jewish problem" was decided upon by prominent Nazi officials at the Wannsee Conference in February 1942, the regime directed its energies explicitly and systematically to genocide.
The Aryan people were transformed into factories for mass production of death.
The genocidal campaign against the Jewish peoples of Europe was intensified after the war against Hitler and the Nazi high command.
In the last years of the regime, vital resources were diverted from the battle fronts for transportation, imprisonment, and mass murder in the camps, where the destruction of human life reached a frenetic pace.
The Nazis identified and arrested Jews and other undesirables.
Those deemed physically fit were sent to the camps in the east where they were subjected to harsh forced labor that took a heavy toll on their lives.
The less fortunate, including the vast majority of the women and children, were systematically murdered, sometimes in experiments carried out by German physicians with the callous disregard for human suffering and humiliation that was a hallmark of the Nazi regime.
At least 6 million were Jews, and many mil of european Jews were slaughtered in the name of God on the Eastern Front.
The deaths of the Holocaust, which began with 6 million Jews, was the most costly genocide of the 20th century.
The horrors of Bosnia, Kosovo, and Kampuchea are yet to come.
The Holocaust was notable for its degree to which it was premeditated and systematic, more so than any of the other major episodes of the 20th-century genocide.
It was carried out by the Nazi state apparatus and German functionaries, who kept detailed records of their actions.
The plight of the Jews of Europe was worsened by the refusal of the Western Allies to accept immigrants who were wealthy or skilled.
The Allies failed to use their military assets to strike at the railway lines and killing chambers they knew were in use by the end of the war.
The resolve of Zionism leaders in Palestine and elsewhere to facilitate the flight of the European Jews was strengthened by these responses to the Nazi horror.
They intensified their determination to establish a Jewish state in Palestine in order to prevent another Holocaust.
The British were so absorbed in their own struggle for survival that they could not help but sympathize with the plight of the Soviets.
The United States provided substantial assistance, including military supplies, to Britain before the Pearl Harbor attack.
Franklin Roosevelt established a good working relationship with Churchil after he sympathized with the British cause.
In 1942 and 1943, American tank divisions and infantry joined the British in reversing Rommel's gains.
Their steady, but often costly, advance up the peninsula lasted into early 1945 but last-ditch effort to repel the invaders eventually led to the Nazi takeover of northern Italy.
Mussolini and the Allied armies were captured and shot by partisans and enraged civilians in the winter of 1944-1945.
With significant German forces tied down on the Eastern Front and in Italy, the Al ied high command, with General Eisenhower at its head, prepared landings in northern France.
Since the Battle of Britain in 1940, the Nazis have been building a fortress in occupied Europe.
The Al ies launched their liberation campaigns into the Low Countries and the rest of France after establishing beachheads at Normandy.
The Russian and American troops got together at the Elbe River in late April to celebrate.
The genuine camaraderie and mutual respect displayed by troops on both sides would soon be lost in high-stakes maneuvers by the political leaders in each camp to shape the postwar world order.
Hitler committed suicide in his Berlin Bunker on April 30 after he was confronted by his closest advisors for betraying the German people.
The war in the European and Mediterranean theaters ended when German military leaders surrendered.
The contest between the Anglo-American and Soviets for control of Germany had begun and would soon be extended to Europe as a whole and the rest of the world.
After Pearl Harbor, one-third of the Japanese military forces remained bogged down in China, despite the extension of the Japanese empire over much of southeast Asia and far out into the Pacific.
With the American Pacific fleet temporarily neutralized by the attack, Japan's combined air, sea, and army assaults quickly captured the territories of the British in Hong Kong, south China, and Malaya.
Despite more determined resistance, they overran the Dutch East Indies and the Philippines.
The Thais retreated into neutrality and cooperated with the Japanese in order to stave off the invasion of Siam.
The united States entered World War II as a result of the attack.
The battles on the seas and islands of the Pacific Ocean were the most important battles of the war.
The Allied forces were committed to destroy the American naval base.
The Japanese had taken control of much of southeast Asia, alienating virtually all of the European colonial powers.
The Europeans would not be able to reinforce their colonial enclaves since the European metropoles had been overrun or were American fleet in the Pacific.
Japan's economy was in need of World War II.
The Japanese imposed colonial regimes on the peoples of southeast Asia that were more brutal than those of the displaced Western colonizers.
Japanese soldiers and resources from the war in the Pacific against the Allied forces were drawn to the resistance movements from the Philippines.
British and American forces pushed into the area in the late stages of the war.
Southeast Asian guerrilla forces, which were often communist, sabotaged occupying forces and harassed Japanese armies.
The main front of the Pacific theater of the war was centered on the islands that Japan had begun to occupy before World War I, as well as those that the British and Americans seized after Pearl Harbor.
The American advance into the central Pacific put the Japanese on the defensive.
The Japanese missed a chance to cripple the most potent weapons in the United States arsenal when they attacked Pearl Harbor.
Japanese forces were fighting a standoff.
The Pacific forces had gained the upper hand in the air and on the sea through these engagements, they could battle, and begin the assault on the double ring of Pacific island fortresses that protected the Japanese homeland.
By early 1944, the Allied forces were within striking distance of Japan thanks to their amphibious assaults on strategically vital islands.
The American air force began bombing the Japanese home islands.
The high concentration of the Japanese population in urban areas and the wood and paper construction of most Japanese dwellings provided tempting targets for American bomber squadrons.
General Le May, who was in charge of American air operations, ordered the bombardment of Japanese cities.
In Tokyo alone, these raids killed over 125,000 people, mostly civilians, and destroyed over 40% of the city within a few days.
The home islands of the empire in China and southeast Asia were largely cut off by Allied naval superiority and submarine attacks.
By the early summer of 1945, Japanese leaders were sending out peace feelers, while the more fanatical elements in the army were promising to fight to the death.
The end was sudden and frightening.
Japan's defeat in a global war brought moral and material that reflected my own feelings.
The government was not sure of its intentions.
The voluntary fighting unit was abolished, and I was not the one who was evacuated from it.
We burned the insignia to the countryside.
The excerpt is from the 1945 diary.
I know that I have to rely on my health to survive.
The passage shows how the American will live.
People don't wear expressions that are different from other days.
I heard her voice in my mind.
My company announced that I must work for Japan's recovery until everything is done.
The city was not loud.
I didn't see any special expression in people's faces.
They seemed brighter, step already taken by governmental bureaus.
I could see a sign of relief in the expression they were thinking about.
They told the Americans that they didn't have enough power to win the war.
The Americans agreed to change the enemy.
There are a lot of problems with this.
When the Japanese are defeated, they show their true colors better.
We had to kill a turkey because seventeen of them were destroying our national characteristics.
We treated other countries.
It was rumored that our military officers were unhappy with the peace, and were inefficient in their ways of doing things.
Some people say that Americans will do some secret moves.
There were other rumors, and with the one item after another at a conference table, and do not waste quiet evacuation of women and children from the cities, our fear was even greater.
Japanese administration is conducted by many defeats before.
Our fear may be the result of chairs and seals.
An auxiliary unit is asked to the unknown.
We did our best and lost, so there is no need to strive for a positive goal.
People who did not do their best may feel guilty.
bread distribution in the morning
The American fleet will anchor in our harbors after the Japanese victory.
On August 6 and 9 atomic bombs were dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
The cities that had been spared bombing were reduced to ashes.
In the short term, casualties in both cities were well over 100,000, and deaths from radiation sick ness increased greatly in the years that followed.
The end of the war in Europe came more quickly than in the rest of the world.
The Allies demanded that the Japanese surrender.
With the exception of retaining the emperor, the Japanese agreed to these terms and began to disarm.
The third main phase of the 20th century would be dominated by the cold war between the Soviet and American powers after the fall of the European colonial order.
The leaders of the Allies who were opposed to the powers headed hostile alliances met several times in an attempt to build the framework for a more lasting peace free of the in nations that had been major vindictiveness that was so prominent at the Versailles gathering.
In the aftermath of World War II, the United States pledged to join, played a major role in the United Nations' organization, and provided a site on the East River in Manhattan for the organization's all of the victorious Allies.
The mission of the Soviet Union was to provide a forum for great powers, such as Britain and France.
China was represented in the first decades after 1945 by the negotiating disputes.
The Security Council is the steering committee for United Nations operations.
After each of the colonies gained independence, the former colonies were granted membership.
The establishment of the United Nations moved international diplomacy and assistance beyond the control of the Western powers.
They retained control through their vetoes in the Security Council.
The primary mission of the United Nations was to negotiate international disputes.
The apparatus of more specialized international agencies, including the World Court of Justice, were taken over by it.
Labor organization, famine relief, agricultural development, and women's concerns are just some of the issues the UN addressed.
Although UN interventions to preserve or restore peace to numerous regions have encountered resistance from both the great powers and regional political leaders, they have proved vital to reducing violent conflict and providing refugee relief throughout the globe.
Critical international conferences sponsored by the United Nations have proved to be highly influential in shaping policies and programs affecting child labor, women's rights, and environmental protection.