Most English citizens did not feel any racial identification with the Irish or the Welsh.
The idea of race as a physical difference that is used to support systems of oppression was new in the early modern Atlantic world.
In the early years of slavery in the South, the distinction between indentured servants and slaves was not clear.
The law that made African women "tithable" was passed in Virginia.
African women's work with difficult agricultural labor was associated with this.
White women were not subject to the same tax as African women.
The English ideal was to have enough hired hands and servants working on the farm so that wives and daughters didn't have to do manual labor.
White women were expected to work in dairy sheds, gardens, and kitchens.
White women did participate in field labor because of the labor shortage.
The English thought of themselves as better than other groups who did not divide labor in this way, including the West Africans who arrived in slave ships to the colonies.
The enslavement and subordination of Africans was justified by the association of a gendered division of labor with Englishness.
Legal and customary understandings of marriage and the home in England informed ideas about the rule of the household.
A man was expected to hold "paternal dominion" over his household, which included his wife, children, servants, and slaves.
Slaves were subject to the authority of the white master because they were not legally masters of the household.
Slave marriages weren't recognized in colonial law.
Some enslaved men and women married people who were not on the same plantation and were not owned by the same master.
The husbands and wives had to travel a lot to visit their spouses.
Religious authority did not protect these marriages, and masters could refuse to let their slaves visit a spouse, or even sell a slave to a new master hundreds of miles away from their spouse and children.
Slaves struggled to establish families and communities within the patriarchal and exploitative colonial environment.
Catholic and Protestant English monarchs vied for supremacy and attacked their opponents as heretics while Spain was plundering the New World.
Queen Elizabeth made Protestantism the official religion of the realm, but there were questions as to what kind of Protestantism would hold sway.
Many radical Protestants looked to the New World as an opportunity to create a beacon of Calvinist Christianity, while others continued the struggle in England.
By the 1640s, political and economic conflicts between Parliament and the Crown merged with long-simmering religious tensions made worse by a king who seemed sympathetic to Catholicism.
There was a civil war.
As England waged war on itself, Colonists reacted in a variety of ways.
Between 1629 and 1640 the absolute rule of Charles I caused a lot of tension between the English Parliament and the king.
Charles wanted to suppress a rebellion in Scotland but the Parliament refused to grant him subsidies.
Civil war broke out in England in 1642 because of strained relations between Parliament and Charles.
England became a republic and protectorate in 1649 after Charles I was executed.
The new government under Cromwell tried to consolidate its hold over its overseas territories, as the changes redefined England's relationship with its American colonies.
No British colony in North America was more than 25 years old in 1642.
Most of the colonies were under the control of the Crown and various proprietors.
In Massachusetts Bay, Puritan settlers governed themselves according to the colony's 1629 charter.
The English government left the colonies to their own devices as a result of the trade in tobacco and naval stores.
Virginia and Maryland were colonies that sympathized with the Crown.
Massachusetts Bay, populated by religious dissenters taking part in the Great Migration of the 1630s, tended to favor Parliament.
The colonies were neutral during the war because they worried that support for either side could lead to a war.
Massachusetts Bay was neutral.
American neutrality was challenged by Charles's execution.
The dead monarch's son, Charles II, had six colo nies declare their loyalty.
The rebelling colonies were forced to accept Parliament's authority after an economic embargo was leveled in 1650.
Parliament argued that America had been "planted at the Cost, and settled" by the English nation, and that it was the embodiment of that commonwealth.
After all previous constitutional compromises between King Charles and Parliament had broken down, both sides raised large armies in the hopes of forcing the other side to concede their position.
The English Civil War lasted over four years and resulted in the creation of the Commonwealth of England in 1649.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658, England found itself in crisis, leading to the re-establishment of the monarchy.
Charles II sailed from the Netherlands to his restoration after nine years in exile on his birthday.
He was well received in London, depicted in this contemporary painting.
Parliament wanted to bind the colonies more closely to England and prevent other European nations from interfering with its American possessions.
The monarchy was restored with Charles II, but popular suspicions of the Crown's Catholic and French sympathies lingered.
The suppression of the religious and press freedoms that flourished during the civil war years demonstrated the Crown's desire to reimpose order and royal rule.
James II's pro-French policies led to the overthrow of the monarchy in 1688.
The English throne was offered to the Dutch prince and his bride, Mary, the daughter of James II, by a group of Parliamentarians.
The coup was called the Glorious Revolution.
In the decades before the Glorious Revolution, English colonists experienced religious and political conflict that reflected changes in Europe as well as distinctly colonial conditions.
In the 1670s and early 1680s, King Charles II tightened English control over North America and the West Indies through the creation of new colonies and the establishment of a new executive council called the Lords of Trade and Plantations.
The Wampanoag leader Metacom led an uprising in New England in 1675 that seemed to confirm the fears.
The revolt against royal authorities in Virginia was triggered by Indian conflicts.
James II created the Dominion of New England in 1686 to place the colonies on a defensive footing.
The New England colonies, New York, and New Jersey were consolidated into one administrative unit to counter French Canada, but the colonies strongly resented the loss of their individual provinces.
Sir Edmund Andros, the governor of the Dominion, did little to quell fears of arbitrary power when he forced colonists into military service for a campaign against the Maine Indians.
English commoners had a long-standing desire to serve in the military.
James II's push for religious toleration of Catholics and dissenters brought him into conflict with Parliament and the Anglican establishment in England.
James II fled to France after the William of Orange invaded.
When it was learned that officials in Boston and New York City were trying to keep the news of the Revolution secret, there was anger toward provincial leaders.
In Massachusetts, New York, and Maryland, local social antagonisms fused with popular animosity toward imperial rule led to the overthrew of colonial governments.
Colonists in America declared their loyalty to the new monarchs.
They maintained order in their colonies.
If there was no King in England, there was no government in Virginia.
A declaration of allegiance was a means of stability.
The ascension of William and Mary was declared for by the colonists because they believed that it confirmed the importance of Protestantism and liberty in English life.