ChAPTER 28 -- Part 2: The Emergence of Industrial Society
Britain tried to impose new taxes and trade controls on the colonies in the 18th century.
The settlers resented the restrictions on movement into the frontier areas.
The colonists used British political theory to argue that they should not be taxed.
Taxing documents and pamphlets roused protest against British tyranny.
There were other grievances involved.
Crowding along the eastern seaboard led some younger men to seek new opportunities that turned them against the older colonial leadership.
The seaboard was designed to humiliate the French government.
After several years of fighting, the United States won its freedom and in 1789 set up a new constitutional structure based on Enlight former British colonies and even enment principles.
Voting rights were limited in America.
Slavery was untouched and the revolution accomplished less.
France was the next step in the revolutionary spiral.
The political restructuring of Western Europe was set in motion by the revolution.
A classic pattern of revolutionary causation was formed in France between 1789 and 1800.
The need to limit the powers of the Catholic Church, the aristocracy, and the monarchy was one of the reasons for the overthrow of Bourbon.
The establishment of the French empire reinforced the ideological challenge.
Some middle-class people, proud of their business or professional under napoleon Bonaparte, wanted a greater political role.
Many peasants wanted to be part of the liberal movements and constitutions in europe.
The French government and upper classes were unable to reform.
The middle-class representatives were inspired by the Enlighten monarch of France and decided to cut the assembly in half, voting by head.
After some street riots in Paris in 1789, the king caved in and the revolution began.
The summer events were important.
The new assembly quickly came up with a new political regime.
During the liberal phase of the guaranteed free expression of ideas, natural rights were defined as liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.
The Bastille, a political prison, became the symbol of the French Revolution after it was attacked by a popular riot.
The manorial records of many landed estates were seized by the French peasants.
This triggered a general declaration of citizens, which later became a political abolishing of manorialism, giving peasants clear title to much land, and establishing equality under the source for other liberal movements.
The principles of the rule of the aristocracy were undermined.
The privileges of the church were also attacked.
Freedom of religion, press, and property are included in a new constitution.
The king is depicted as a French literary figure who was a great eater.
Improvements in printing and literacy have made cartoons more available, and they have continued to be important into the present day.
The initial push for reform became more radical.
Civil war broke out in several parts of France as a result of early reforms that provoked massive opposition.
Britain, Prussia, and Austria trumpeted their opposition to the revolution, and France followed suit.
The revolution was taken over by radical leaders who wanted to push the revolution forward and set up stronger authority in the defense of the revolution.
Even though it was mild, the radicals executed thousands of opponents during the reign of terror.
The leader of the radical phase was Maximilien Robespierre.
He obtained his law degree in 1781 and was born into a family of lawyers.
He put down many groups and worked to control the government.
The "cult of the Supreme Being" was set up to replace Catholicism.
Robespierre was symbolic of the single-minded revolutionary.
He shied away from social reforms that might have gotten the support of the city.
He believed he knew the will of the people.
When he called for another purge of moderate leaders, the popular group abandoned him and he was arrested.
Robespierre and his colleagues pushed revolutionary reforms while in power.
Universal adult male suffrage was never fully put into practice.
The metric system of weights and measures was introduced by the radicals.