Light panels and super-strong plastic are used to build satellites, airplanes, ships, and cars.
Most successful modern scientists work in a narrow field of study, chipping away at a problem that they have become experts on.
But not all of the time.
He explored about two dozen ideas over the course of 15 years.
Some of Geim's Friday night experiments succeeded.
In a Friday night experiment, Geim was able to suspend a frog in a magnetic field.
He created a new kind of tape that mimicked the toes of a lizard.
His most successful experiment was the discovery of Graphene.
Geim assigned a new graduate student a Friday night experiment in 2002 to give them time to get to know the lab.
The graduate student tried to polish a piece of paper down to nothingness.
The sheet he was able to get by this method was still pretty thick.
A colleague brought Geim a piece of tape that had been put on a surface and then removed.
The tape had something stuck to it.
When Geim looked at the flakes under a microscope, he realized that they were much thinner than what his graduate student was able to produce.
Geim and his colleagues were able to measure some of the properties of the flakes.
It has been under our noses for a while.
Every time you write with a pencil, the paper leaves a gray trail.
The trail also contains small pieces of Graphene.
As a result of seeing what others had missed, Geim and Novoselov discovered a new wonder material.
It can take decades to realize and refine these kinds of discoveries.
In this chapter, we look into the world of materials and see how they have changed societies.
The discovery of cement, porcelain, and semiconducting materials made possible the computer and Internet revolution which is still unfolding today, are examples of how the discovery of cement, porcelain, and semiconducting materials made possible the computer and Internet revolution which is still unfolding today.
The development of new materials is a growing area of research.
We look at a technique to determine the structure.
We talked about the differences between gases and liquids.
If you've ever been to the mineral section of a natural history museum and seen crystals with smooth faces and well-defined angles, you've seen some of the effects of the underlying long-range order.
Geometric shapes that are visible on the scale are the result of structural patterns on the scales.
Atomic planes are separated from each other.
If two rays of light with wavelength l that are initially in phase, the crests of one wave are aligned with the crests of the other, the diffracted rays may interfere with each other.
By rotating the crystal and collecting the resulting patterns at different angles, the distances between various planes can be measured.
X-ray crystallography can be used to determine the structures of simple atomic lattices and other biologically important molecule.
The X-ray photograph shown in the margin was obtained by both Franklin and Wilkins.
The structure of the HIV protease is important to the reproduction of HIV and the development of AIDS.
Knowledge of that structure was used to design drugs that would stop the progression of the disease.
When an X-ray beam of 154 pm is incident on the surface of an iron crystal, it produces a maximum diffracted angle of 32.6 degrees.