15 -- Part 6: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
Luther's message was heard by all social classes in Germany.
People who were educated were attracted to Luther's ideas.
He advocated a simpler personal religion based on faith, a return to the spirit of the early church, and the abolition of elaborate ceremonies, all of which were reforms the Christian Hu manists had been calling for.
Many priests and monks became clergy in the new Protestant churches because of his insistence that everyone should read and reflect on the Scriptures.
The townsfolk envied the church's wealth and resented paying for it.
Clergy were placed under the jurisdiction of civil courts after the city became Protestant.
Luther's fame and success have been attributed to the invention of the printing press, which quickly reproduced and made known his ideas.
The main ideas were included in many printed works so that even those who couldn't read could comprehend them.
Luther's translation of the New Testament into German in 1523 was one of the important means of conveying doctrine.
The practice of religion remained public in the 16th century.
The official form of religious practice was mined by the ruler.
The presence of a faith different from the majority was seen as a threat to the security of the state.
People with different ideas had to convert or leave.
The idea of a united church and state was rejected by some individuals and groups who wanted to create a voluntary community of believers.
These individuals and groups are called "radicals" for their insistence on a more extensive break with prevailing ideas.
Some adopted the custom of baptizing adult believers, for which they were given the title of "Anabaptists", while others saw all outward rituals as mis guided.
Communal ownership of property was attempted by some groups.
Some reacted harshly to members who deviated from the group's accepted practices, but others argued for complete religious toleration and individualism.
Bann ishment and execution were included in the persecution of religious radicals.
Both Protestant and Catholic authorities felt threatened by the social, political, and economic implications of radicals' religious ideas and their rejection of a state church, which the authorities saw as key to maintaining order.
The peasantry challenged state authorities.
The economic condition of peasants was worse in the early 16th century than it had been in the 15th century.
Love is dutiful and obedient to its object.
Christ, though Lord of all things, was made of a woman, made under the law, free and a servant, at the same time in the form of God and a servant.
We can look at the subject on a deeper and less simple principle.
Man is made of a twofold nature, a spiritual and a bodily.
Not a few harm can ill health, bondage, hunger, thirst, or any even reckon it among the social virtues, as it were, and this they do other outward evil, do to the soul, when even the most.
The liberty or not at some point tasted of its spirit, under the pressure of tribulation, is the reason for these states of things.
It won't profit anything if the body doesn't write, speak, think or hear about it.
A Christian man is the most free lord of all, and subject to none; a thing widely different will be necessary for the jus Christian man, who is the most dutiful servant of all, and subject to tification and liberty of the soul.
When they are found to agree together, they will do well for my purpose.
One thing, and one alone, is necessary for life.
If you believe in the Holy Word of God, you can be justified by the works, even if they are not.
When you begin to believe, you will learn that I will not die eternally, and at the same time that all that is in you is guilty.
You will know that Christ is necessary for you when you hear every word that comes out of your mouth.
Let us hold it for certain and firmly become another man, all your sins being forgiven, and you being established that the soul can do without everything justified by the merits of another, namely Christ alone.
It is possible for the inward man to be justified, made rich and wants for nothing, since that is the Word of free, and saved, and that no works have any relation to life, of truth, of light, of peace.
The first thing a Christian should do is to lay salvation, of joy, of liberty, of wisdom, of virtue, of aside all reliance on works, and strengthen his faith alone more and grace, of glory, and of every good thing.
H. Wace and C. A. Buchheim wrote about the "Gospel of God" in 1896.
James Bruce Ross and Mary Martin McLaughlin wrote " ing His Son, incarnate, suffering, risen, and glorified 1981" in New York.
To preach Christ is to feed the soul, to justify it, to set it free, and to save it.
"If you confess with your mouth, the Lord Jesus, 2.
Luther was cited as a theologian who could prove that their demands conformed to the Scriptures.
Wanting to prevent rebel ion, Luther sided with the peasants and blasted the lords for robbing their subjects.
The peasants who expected Luther's support were disappointed when the rebellion broke out.
Freedom for Luther meant independence from the Roman Church, not opposition to secular powers.
The German Peasants' War of 1525 was the result of the nobility crushing the revolt.
More than seventy-five thousand peasants were killed that year.